Cloud History Software Engineering

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See also: List of pioneers in computer science and Timeline of the History of Computers

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Cloud History Software Engineering

List of pioneers in computer science

See also: Timeline of the History of Computers

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This article presents a list of individuals who made transformative breakthroughs in the creation, development and imagining of what computers could do.


To put the list in chronological order, click the small “up-down” icon in the Date column. The Person column can also be sorted alphabetically, up-down.

830~Al-KhwarizmiThe term “algorithm” is derived from the algorism, the technique of performing arithmetic with Hindu–Arabic numerals popularised by al-Khwarizmi in his book On the Calculation with Hindu Numerals.[1][2][3]
1944Aiken, HowardConceived and codesigned the Harvard Mark I.
1970, 1989Allen, Frances E.Developed bit vector notation and program control-flow graphs. Became the first female IBM Fellow in 1989. In 2006, she became the first female recipient of the ACM’s Turing Award.
1939Atanasoff, JohnBuilt the first electronic digital computer, the Atanasoff–Berry Computer, though it was neither programmable nor Turing-complete.
1822, 1837Babbage, CharlesOriginated the concept of a programmable general-purpose computer. Designed the Analytical Engine and built a prototype for a less powerful mechanical calculator.
1954, 1963Backus, JohnLed the team that created FORTRAN (Formula Translation), the first practical high-level programming language, and he formulated the Backus–Naur form that described the formal language syntax.
1964Baran, PaulOne of two independent inventors of the concept of digital packet switching used in modern computer networking including the Internet.[4][5] Baran published a series of briefings and papers about dividing information into “message blocks” and sending it over distributed networks between 1960 and 1964.[6][7]
1874Baudot, ÉmileA French telegraphic engineer patents the Baudot code, the first means of digital communication.[8] The modem speed unit baud is named after him.
1989, 1990Berners-Lee, TimInvented World Wide Web. With Robert Cailliau, sent first HTTP communication between client and server.
1966Böhm, CorradoTheorized of the concept of structured programming.
1847, 1854Boole, GeorgeFormalized Boolean algebra, the basis for digital logic and computer science.
1947Booth, KathleenInvented the first assembly language.
1969, 1978Brinch Hansen, PerDeveloped the RC 4000 multiprogramming system which introduced the concept of an operating system kernel and the separation of policy and mechanism, effectively the first microkernel architecture.[9] Co-developed the monitor with Tony Hoare, and created the first monitor implementation.[10] Implemented the first form of remote procedure call in the RC 4000,[9] and was first to propose remote procedure calls as a structuring concept for distributed computing.[11]
1959, 1995Brooks, FredManager of IBM System/360 and OS/360 projects; author of The Mythical Man-Month.
1908Brouwer, Luitzen Egbertus JanFounded intuitionistic logic which later came to prevalent use in proof assistants.
1930Bush, VannevarAnalogue computing pioneer. Originator of the Memex concept, which led to the development of Hypertext.
1951Caminer, DavidWith John Pinkerton, developed the LEO computer, the first business computer, for J. Lyons and Co
1978Cerf, VintWith Bob Kahn, designed the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), the primary data communication protocols of the Internet and other computer networks.
1956Chomsky, NoamMade contributions to computer science with his work in linguistics. He developed Chomsky hierarchy, a discovery which has directly impacted programming language theory and other branches of computer science.
1936Church, AlonzoMade fundamental contributions to theoretical computer science, specifically in the development of computability theory in the form of lambda calculus. Independently of Alan Turing, he formulated what is now known as Church-Turing Thesis and proved that first-order logic is undecidable.
1962Clark, Wesley A.Designed LINC, the first functional computer scaled down and priced for the individual user. Put in service in 1963, many of its features are seen as prototypes of what were to be essential elements of personal computers.
1981Clarke, Edmund M.Developed model checking and formal verification of software and hardware together with E. Allen Emerson.
1970Codd, Edgar F.Proposed and formalized the relational model of data management, the theoretical basis of relational databases.
1971Conway, LynnSuperscalar architecture with multiple-issue out-of-order dynamic instruction scheduling.
1967Cook, StephenFormalized the notion of NP-completeness, inspiring a great deal of research in computational complexity theory.
1965Cooley, JamesWith John W. Tukey, created the fast Fourier transform.
1965Davies, DonaldOne of two independent inventors of the concept of digital packet switching used in modern computer networking including the Internet.[4][12] Davies conceived of and named the concept of packet switching in data communication networks in 1965 and 1966.[13][14]
1962Dahl, Ole-JohanWith Kristen Nygaard, invented the proto-object oriented language SIMULA.
1968Dijkstra, EdsgerMade advances in algorithms, pioneered and coined the term structured programming, invented the semaphore, and famously suggested that the GOTO statement should be considered harmful.
1918Eccles, William and Jordan, Frank WilfredBritish physicists patent the Eccles–Jordan trigger circuit.[15] The so-called bistable flip-flop, this circuit is a building block of all digital memory cells. Built from Vacuum tubes, their concept was essential for the success of the Colossus codebreaking computer.
1943, 1951Eckert, J. PresperWith John Mauchly, designed and built the ENIAC, the first modern (all electronic, Turing-complete) computer, and the UNIVAC I, the first commercially available computer.
1981Emerson, E. AllenDeveloped model checking and formal verification of software and hardware together with Edmund M. Clarke.
1963Engelbart, DouglasBest known for inventing the computer mouse (in a joint effort with Bill English); as a pioneer of human–computer interaction whose Augment team developed hypertextnetworked computers, and precursors to GUIs.
1973Thacker, Charles P.Pioneering design and realization of the Xerox Alto, the first modern personal computer, and in addition for his contributions to the Ethernet and the Tablet PC.
1971Faggin, FedericoDesigned the first commercial microprocessor (Intel 4004).
1974Feinler, ElizabethHer team defined a simple text file format for Internet host names. The list evolved into the Domain Name System and her group became the naming authority for the top-level domains of .mil, .gov, .edu, .org, and .com.
1943Flowers, TommyDesigned and built the Mark 1 and the ten improved Mark 2 Colossus computers, the world’s first programmable, digital, electronic, computing devices.
1994Floyd, SallyFounded the field of Active Queue Management and co-invented Random Early Detection which is used in almost all Internet routers.
1879Frege, GottlobExtended Aristotelian logic with first-order predicate calculus, independently of Charles Sanders Peirce, a crucial precursor in computability theory. Also relevant to early work on artificial intelligencelogic programming.
1880, 1898Sanders Peirce, CharlesProved the functional completeness of the NOR gate. Proposed the implementation of logic via electrical circuits, decades before Claude Shannon. Extended Aristotelian logic with first-order predicate calculus, independently of Gottlob Frege, a crucial precursor in computability theory. Also relevant to early work on artificial intelligencelogic programming.
1985Furber, Stephen
Sophie Wilson
Are known for their work on creating ARM 32bit RISC microprocessor.[16]
1958, 1961, 1967Ginsburg, SeymourProved “don’t-care” circuit minimization does not necessarily yield optimal results, proved that the ALGOL programming language is context-free (thus linking formal language theory to the problem of compiler writing), and invented AFL Theory.
1931Gödel, KurtProved that Peano arithmetic could not be both logically consistent and complete in first-order predicate calculus. Church, Kleene, and Turing developed the foundations of computation theory based on corollaries to Gödel’s work.
1989Goldwasser, ShafiZero-knowledge proofs invented by Goldwasser, Micali and Rackoff. Goldwasser and Micali awarded the Turing Award in 2012 for this and other work.
2011Graham, Susan L.Awarded the 2009 IEEE John von Neumann Medal for “contributions to programming language design and implementation and for exemplary service to the discipline of computer science”.
1953Gray, FrankPhysicist and researcher at Bell Labs, developed the reflected binary code (RBC) or Gray code.[17] Gray’s methodologies are used for error detection and correction in digital communication systems, such as QAM in digital subscriber line networks.
1974, 2005Gray, JimInnovator in database systems and transaction processing implementation.
1986, 1990Grosz, Barbara[undue weight? – discuss]Created the first computational model of discourse, which established the field of research and influenced language-processing technologies. Also developed SharedPlans model for collaboration in multi-agent systems.
1988, 2015Gustafson, JohnProved the viability of parallel computing experimentally and theoretically Gustafson’s Law. Developed high-efficiency formats for representing real numbers Unum and Posit.
1971Hamilton, MargaretDeveloped the concepts of asynchronous software, priority scheduling, end-to-end testing, and human-in-the-loop decision capability, such as priority displays which then became the foundation for ultra reliable software design.
1950Hamming, RichardCreated the mathematical field of error-correcting codeHamming codeHamming matrix, the Hamming windowHamming numberssphere-packing (or Hamming bound), and the Hamming distance.[18][19] He established concept of perfect code.[20][21]
1972, 1973Thi, André Truong Trong and François Gernelle[undue weight? – discuss]Invention of the Micral N, the earliest commercial, non-kit personal computer based on a microprocessor.
1981, 1995, 1999Hejlsberg, AndersAuthor of Turbo Pascal while at Borland, the chief architect of Delphi, and designer and lead architect of C# at Microsoft.
2008, 2012, 2018Hinton, GeoffreyPopularized and enabled the use of artificial neural networks and deep learning, which rank among the most successful tools in modern artificial intelligence efforts. Received the Turing Award in 2018 for conceptual and engineering breakthroughs that have made deep neural networks a critical component of computing.[22]
1961, 1969, 1978, 1980Hoare, C.A.R.Developed the formal language Communicating Sequential Processes (CSP), Hoare logic for verifying program correctness, and Quicksort. Fundamental contributions to the definition and design of programming languages.
1968Holberton, BettyWrote the first mainframe sort merge on the Univac
1889Hollerith, HermanWidely regarded as the father of modern machine data processing. His invention of the punched card tabulating machine marks the beginning of the era of semiautomatic data processing systems.
1952Hopper, GracePioneered work on the necessity for high-level programming languages, which she termed automatic programming, and wrote the A-O compiler, which heavily influenced the COBOL language.
1997Hsu Feng-hsiungWork led to the creation of the Deep Thought chess computer, and the architect and the principal designer of the IBM Deep Blue chess computer which defeated the reigning World Chess ChampionGarry Kasparov, in 1997.
1952Hurd, CuthbertHelped the International Business Machines Corporation develop its first general-purpose computer, the IBM 701.
1945, 1953Huskey, HarryEarly computer design including contributions to the ENIACEDVACPilot ACEEDVACSEACSWAC, and Bendix G-15 computers. The G-15 has been described as the first personal computer, being operable by one person.
1954, 1962Iverson, KennethAssisted in establishing the first graduate course in computer science (at Harvard) and taught that course; invented the APL programming language and made contribution to interactive computing.
1801Jacquard, Joseph MarieBuilt and demonstrated the Jacquard loom, a programmable mechanized loom controlled by a tape constructed from punched cards.
1206Al-JazariInvented programmable machines, including programmable humanoid robots,[23] and the castle clock, an astronomical clock considered the first programmable analog computer.[24]
1953Spärck Jones, Karen[undue weight? – discuss]One of the pioneers of information retrieval and natural language processing.
1970, 1990Karnaugh, MauriceInventor of the Karnaugh map, used for logic function minimization.
1973Karpinski, JacekDeveloped the first differential analyzer that used transistors, and developed one of the first machine learning algorithms for character and image recognition. Also was the inventor of one of the first minicomputers, the K-202.
1970~Kay, AlanPioneered many of the ideas at the root of object-oriented programming languages, led the team that developed Smalltalk, and made fundamental contributions to personal computing.
1957Kirsch, Russell GrayWhilst working for the National Bureau of Standards (NBS), Kirsch used a recently developed image scanner to scan and store the first digital photograph.[25] His scanned photo of his three-month-old son was deemed by Life magazine as one the “100 Photographs That Changed The World.”
1936Kleene, Stephen ColePioneered work with Alonzo Church on the Lambda Calculus that first laid down the foundations of computation theory.
1968, 1989Knuth, DonaldWrote The Art of Computer Programming and created TeX. Coined the term “analysis of algorithms” and made major contributions to that field, including popularizing Big O notation.
1974, 1978Lamport, LeslieFormulated algorithms to solve many fundamental problems in distributed systems (e.g. the bakery algorithm).
Developed the concept of a logical clock, enabling synchronization between distributed entities based on the events through which they communicate. Created LaTeX.
1951Lebedev, Sergei AlekseyevichIndependently designed the first electronic computer in the Soviet Union, MESM, in Kiev, Ukraine.
1670~Leibniz, GottfriedMade advances in symbolic logic, such as the Calculus ratiocinator, that were heavily influential on Gottlob Frege. He anticipated later developments in first-order predicate calculus, which were crucial for the theoretical foundations of computer science.
1960Licklider, J. C. R.Began the investigation of human–computer interaction, leading to many advances in computer interfaces as well as in cybernetics and artificial intelligence.
1987Liskov, BarbaraDeveloped the Liskov substitution principle, which guarantees semantic interoperability of data types in a hierarchy.
1300~Llull, RamonDesigned multiple symbolic representations machines, and pioneered notions of symbolic representation and manipulation to produce knowledge—both of which were major influences on Leibniz.
1852Lovelace, AdaAn English mathematician and writer, chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage’s proposed mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. She was the first to recognize that the machine had applications beyond pure calculation, and created the first algorithm intended to be carried out by such a machine. As a result, she is often regarded as the first to recognize the full potential of a “computing machine” and the first computer programmer.
1909Ludgate, PercyCharles Babbage in 1843 and Percy Ludgate in 1909 designed the first two Analytical Engines in history. Ludgate’s engine used multiplication as its basis (using his own discrete “Irish logarithms”), had the first multiplier-accumulator (MAC), was first to exploit a MAC to perform division, stored numbers as displacements of rods in shuttles, and had several other novel features, including for program control.
1971Martin-Löf, PerPublished an early draft on the type theory that many proof assistants build on.
1943, 1951Mauchly, JohnWith J. Presper Eckert, designed and built the ENIAC, the first modern (all electronic, Turing-complete) computer, and the UNIVAC I, the first commercially available computer. Also worked on BINAC(1949), EDVAC(1949), UNIVAC(1951) with Grace Hopper and Jean Bartik, to develop early stored program computers.
1958McCarthy, JohnInvented LISP, a functional programming language.
1956, 2012McCluskey, Edward J.Fundamental contributions that shaped the design and testing of digital systems, including the first algorithm for digital logic synthesis, the Quine-McCluskey logic minimization method.
1986Meyer, BertrandDeveloped design by contract in the guise of the Eiffel programming language.
1963Minsky, MarvinCo-founder of Artificial Intelligence Lab at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, author of several texts on AI and philosophy. Critic of the perceptron.
850~Banū MūsāThe Banū Mūsā brothers wrote the Book of Ingenious Devices, where they described what appears to be the first programmable machine, an automatic flute player.[26]
1950, 1960Nakamatsu YoshirōInvented the first floppy disk at Tokyo Imperial University in 1950,[27][28] receiving a 1952 Japanese patent[29][30] and 1958 US patent for his floppy magnetic disk sheet invention,[31] and licensed to Nippon Columbia in 1960[32] and IBM in the 1970s.[29][27]
2008Nakamoto, SatoshiThe anonymous creator or creators of Bitcoin, the first peer-to-peer digital currency. Nakamoto’s 2008 white-paper introduced the concept of the blockchain, a database structure that allows full trust in the decentralized and distributed public transaction ledger of the cryptocurrency.[33]
1934, 1938Nakashima AkiraNEC engineer introduced switching circuit theory in papers from 1934 to 1936, laying the foundations for digital circuit design, in digital computers and other areas of modern technology.
1960Naur, PeterEdited the ALGOL 60 Revised Report, introducing Backus-Naur form
1945Neumann, John vonFormulated the von Neumann architecture upon which most modern computers are based.
1956Newell, AllenTogether with J. C. Shaw[34] and Herbert Simon, the three co-wrote the Logic Theorist, the first true AI program, in the first list-processing language, which influenced LISP.
1943Newman, MaxInstigated the production of the Colossus computers at Bletchley Park. After the war he established the Computing Machine Laboratory at the University of Manchester where he created the project that built the world’s first stored-program computer, the Manchester Baby.
1962Nygaard, KristenWith Ole-Johan Dahl, invented the proto-object oriented language SIMULA.
500 BC ~PāṇiniAshtadhyayi Sanskrit grammar was systematised and technical, using metarules, transformations, and recursions, a forerunner to formal language theory and basis for Panini-Backus form used to describe programming languages.
1642Pascal, BlaiseInvented the mechanical calculator.
1952Perlis, AlanOn Project Whirlwind, member of the team that developed the ALGOL programming language, and the first recipient of the Turing Award
1985Perlman, RadiaInvented the Spanning Tree Protocol (STP), which is fundamental to the operation of network bridges, while working for Digital Equipment Corporation. Has done extensive and innovative research, particularly on encryption and networking. She received the USENIX Lifetime Achievement Award in 2007, among numerous others.
1964Perotto, Pier Giorgio[undue weight? – discuss]Computer designer for Olivetti, designed one of the first electronic programmable calculators, the Programma 101[35][36][37]
1932Péter, RózsaPublished a series of papers grounding recursion theory as a separate area of mathematical research, setting the foundation for theoretical computer science.
1995Picard, Rosalind[undue weight? – discuss]Founded Affective Computing, and laid the foundations for giving computers skills of emotional intelligence.
1936Post, Emil L.Developed the Post machine as a model of computation, independently of Turing. Known also for developing truth tables, the Post correspondence problem used in recursion theory as well as proving what is known as Post’s theorem.
19672011Ritchie, DennisWith Ken Thompson, pioneered the C programming language and the Unix computer operating system at Bell Labs.
1958–1960Rosen, SaulDesigned the software of the first transistor-based computer. Also influenced the ALGOL programming language.
1910Russell, BertrandMade contributions to computer science with his work on mathematical logic (example: truth function). Introduced the notion of type theory. He also introduced type system (along with Alfred North Whitehead) in his work, Principia Mathematica.
1975Salton, Gerard[undue weight? – discuss]A pioneer of automatic information retrieval, who proposed the vector space model and the inverted index.
1962Sammet, Jean E.Developed the FORMAC programming language. She was also the first to write extensively about the history and categorization of programming languages in 1969, and became the first female president of the Association for Computing Machinery in 1974.
1963, 1973Sasaki TadashiSharp engineer who conceived a single-chip microprocessor CPU, presenting the idea to Busicom and Intel in 1968. This influenced the first commercial microprocessor, the Intel 4004; before Busicom, Intel was a memory manufacturer. Tadashi Sasaki also developed LCD calculators at Sharp.[38]
1937, 1948Shannon, ClaudeFounded information theory, and laid foundations for practical digital circuit design.
1968, 1980Shima MasatoshiDesigned the Intel 4004, the first commercial microprocessor,[39][40] as well as the Intel 8080Zilog Z80 and Zilog Z8000 microprocessors, and the Intel 8259825582538257 and 8251 chips.[41]
1956, 1957Simon, Herbert A.A political scientist and economist who pioneered artificial intelligence. Co-creator of the Logic Theory Machine and the General Problem Solver programs.
1972Stallman, RichardStallman launched the GNU Project in September 1983 to create a Unix-like computer operating system composed entirely of free software. With this, he also launched the free software movement.
1982Stonebraker, MichaelResearcher at MIT’s Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL) who revolutionized the field of database management systems (DBMSs) and founded multiple successful database companies
1979Stroustrup, BjarneInvented C++ at Bell Labs
1963Sutherland, IvanAuthor of Sketchpad, the ancestor of modern computer-aided drafting (CAD) programs and one of the early examples of object-oriented programming.
1967Thompson, KenCreated the Unix operating system, the B programming languagePlan 9 operating system, the first machine to achieve a Master rating in chess, and the UTF-8 encoding at Bell Labs and the Go programming language at Google.
1993Toh Chai KeongCreated mobile ad hoc networking; Implemented the first working wireless ad hoc network of laptop computers in 1998 using Linux OS, Lucent WaveLan 802.11 radios, and a new distributed routing protocol transparent to TCP/UDP/IP.
1991Torvalds, LinusCreated the first version of the Linux kernel.
1912, 1914, 1920Torres Quevedo, LeonardoIn 1912, Leonardo Torres Quevedo built El Ajedrecista (the chess player), one of the first autonomous machines capable of playing chess. As opposed to the human-operated The Turk and Ajeeb, El Ajedrecista was a true automaton built to play chess without human guidance. It played an endgame with three chess pieces, automatically moving a white king and a rook to checkmate the black king moved by a human opponent. In his work Essays on Automatics, published in 1914, Torres Quevedo formulates what will be a new branch of engineering: automation. This work also included floating-point arithmetic. In 1920, Torres Quevedo was the first in history to build an early electromechanical version of the Analytical Engine.
1965Tukey, John W.With James Cooley, created the fast Fourier transform. He invented the term “bit”.[42]
1936Turing, AlanMade several foundamental contributions to theoretical computer science, including the Turing machine computational model, the conceiving of the stored program concept and the designing of the high-speed ACE design. Independently of Alonzo Church, he formulated the Church-Turing thesis and proved that first-order logic is undecidable. He also explored the philosophical issues concerning artificial intelligence, proposing what is now known as Turing test.
1950~Wang AnMade key contributions to the development of magnetic core memory.
1955, 1960s, 1974Ware, WillisCo-designer of JOHNNIAC. Chaired committee that developed the Code of Fair Information Practice and led to the Privacy Act of 1974. Vice-chair of the Privacy Protection Study Commission.
1968Wijngaarden, Adriaan vanDeveloper of the W-grammar first used in the definition of ALGOL 68
1949Wilkes, MauriceBuilt the first practical stored program computer (EDSAC) to be completed and for being credited with the ideas of several high-level programming language constructs.
1970, 1978Wirth, NiklausDesigned the PascalModula-2 and Oberon programming languages.
1875, 1875Verea, RamónDesigned and patented the Verea Direct Multiplier, the first mechanical direct multiplier.
1938, 1945Zuse, KonradBuilt the first digital freely programmable computer, the Z1. Built the first functional program-controlled computer, the Z3.[43] The Z3 was proven to be Turing-complete in 1998. Produced the world’s first commercial computer, the Z4. Designed the first high-level programming language, Plankalkül.
1970Wilkinson, James H.Research in numerical analysis to facilitate the use of the high-speed digital computer, having received special recognition for his work in computations in linear algebra and “backward” error analysis.[44]
1973Bachman, CharlesOutstanding contributions to database technology.[45]
1976Rabin, Michael O.The joint paper “Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems,”[46] which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field.[47][48]
1976Scott, DanaThe joint paper “Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems,”[46] which introduced the idea of nondeterministic machines, which has proved to be an enormously valuable concept. Their (Scott & Rabin) classic paper has been a continuous source of inspiration for subsequent work in this field.[47][48]
1978Floyd, Robert W.Having a clear influence on methodologies for the creation of efficient and reliable software, and helping to found the following important subfields of computer science: the theory of parsing, the semantics of programming languages, automatic program verificationautomatic program synthesis, and analysis of algorithms.[49]
1985Karp, Richard M.Contributions to the theory of algorithms including the development of efficient algorithms for network flow and other combinatorial optimization problems, the identification of polynomial-time computability with the intuitive notion of algorithmic efficiency, and, most notably, contributions to the theory of NP-completeness.
1986Hopcroft, JohnFundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures.
1986Tarjan, RobertFundamental achievements in the design and analysis of algorithms and data structures.
1987Cocke, JohnSignificant contributions in the design and theory of compilers, the architecture of large systems and the development of reduced instruction set computers (RISC).
1989Kahan, WilliamFundamental contributions to numerical analysis. One of the foremost experts on floating-point computations. Kahan has dedicated himself to “making the world safe for numerical computations.
1989Corbató, Fernando J.Pioneering work organizing the concepts and leading the development of the general-purpose, large-scale, time-sharing and resource-sharing computer systems, CTSS and Multics.
1991Milner, Robin1) LCF, the mechanization of Scott’s Logic of Computable Functions, probably the first theoretically based yet practical tool for machine assisted proof construction; 2) ML, the first language to include polymorphic type inference together with a type-safe exception-handling mechanism; 3) CCS, a general theory of concurrency. In addition, he formulated and strongly advanced full abstraction, the study of the relationship between operational and denotational semantics.[50]
1992Lampson, Butler W.Development of distributed, personal computing environments and the technology for their implementation: workstationsnetworksoperating systems, programming systems, displayssecurity and document publishing.
1993Hartmanis, JurisFoundations for the field of computational complexity theory.[51]
1993Stearns, Richard E.Foundations for the field of computational complexity theory.[51]
1994Feigenbaum, EdwardPioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology.[52]
1994Reddy, RajPioneering the design and construction of large scale artificial intelligence systems, demonstrating the practical importance and potential commercial impact of artificial intelligence technology.[52]
1995Blum, ManuelContributions to the foundations of computational complexity theory and its application to cryptography and program checking.[53]
1996Pnueli, AmirIntroducing temporal logic into computing science and for outstanding contributions to program and systems verification.[54]
2000Yao, AndrewFundamental contributions to the theory of computation, including the complexity-based theory of pseudorandom number generationcryptography, and communication complexity.
1977Rivest, RonIngenious contribution and making public-key cryptography useful in practice.
1977Shamir, AdiIngenious contribution and making public-key cryptography useful in practice.
1977Adleman, LeonardIngenious contribution and making public-key cryptography useful in practice.
1978Kahn, BobDesigned the Transmission Control Protocol and Internet Protocol (TCP/IP), the primary data communication protocols of the Internet and other computer networks.
2007Sifakis, JosephDeveloping model checking into a highly effective verification technology, widely adopted in the hardware and software industries.[55]
2010Valiant, LeslieTransformative contributions to the theory of computation, including the theory of probably approximately correct (PAC) learning, the complexity of enumeration and of algebraic computation, and the theory of parallel and distributed computing.
2011Pearl, JudeaFundamental contributions to artificial intelligence through the development of a calculus for probabilistic and causal reasoning.[56]
1976Hellman, MartinFundamental contributions to modern cryptography. Diffie and Hellman’s groundbreaking 1976 paper, “New Directions in Cryptography,”[57] introduced the ideas of public-key cryptography and digital signatures, which are the foundation for most regularly-used security protocols on the Internet today.[58]
1976Diffie, WhitfieldFundamental contributions to modern cryptography. Diffie and Hellman’s groundbreaking 1976 paper, “New Directions in Cryptography,”[57] introduced the ideas of public-key cryptography and digital signatures, which are the foundation for most regularly-used security protocols on the Internet today.[59]
2018Bengio, YoshuaHinton GeoffreyLecun YannConceptual and engineering breakthroughs that have made deep neural networks a critical component of computing.[22]
2012Silvio MicaliFor transformative work that laid the complexity-theoretic foundations for the science of cryptography and in the process pioneered new methods for efficient verification of mathematical proofs in complexity theory.
2017John L. HennessyFor pioneering a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry.
2017David PattersonFor pioneering a systematic, quantitative approach to the design and evaluation of computer architectures with enduring impact on the microprocessor industry.
2019Edwin CatmullFor fundamental contributions to 3-D computer graphics, and the revolutionary impact of these techniques on computer-generated imagery (CGI) in filmmaking and other applications
2019Pat HanrahanFor fundamental contributions to 3-D computer graphics, and the revolutionary impact of these techniques on computer-generated imagery (CGI) in filmmaking and other applications

~ Items marked with a tilde are circa dates.

See also


  1. ^ Mario Tokoro, ed. (2010). “9”. e: From Understanding Principles to Solving Problems. pp. 223–224. ISBN 978-1-60750-468-9.
  2. ^ Cristopher Moore; Stephan Mertens (2011). The Nature of Computation. Oxford University Press. p. 36. ISBN 978-0-19-162080-5.
  3. ^ A. P. Ershov, Donald Ervin Knuth, ed. (1981). Algorithms in modern mathematics and computer science: proceedings, Urgench, Uzbek SSR, September 16–22, 1979. Springer. ISBN 978-3-540-11157-3.
  4. a b “The real story of how the Internet became so vulnerable”Washington Post. May 30, 2015. Archived from the original on 2015-05-30. Retrieved 2020-02-18. Historians credit seminal insights to Welsh scientist Donald W. Davies and American engineer Paul Baran
  5. ^ “Inductee Details – Paul Baran”. National Inventors Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  6. ^ Baran, Paul (2002). “The beginnings of packet switching: some underlying concepts” (PDF). IEEE Communications Magazine40 (7): 42–48. doi:10.1109/MCOM.2002.1018006ISSN 0163-6804Essentially all the work was defined by 1961, and fleshed out and put into formal written form in 1962. The idea of hot potato routing dates from late 1960.
  7. ^ Monica, 1776 Main Street Santa; California 90401-3208. “Paul Baran and the Origins of the Internet” Retrieved 2020-02-15.
  8. ^ “Jean-Maurice- Emile Baudot. Système de télégraphie rapide, June 1874. Brevet 103,898; Source: Archives Institut National de la Propriété Industrielle (INPI)”.
  9. a b “Per Brinch Hansen • IEEE Computer Society” Retrieved 2015-12-15.
  10. ^ Brinch Hansen, Per (April 1993). “Monitors and Concurrent Pascal: a personal history” (PDF). 2nd ACM Conference on the History of Programming Languages.
  11. ^ Brinch Hansen, Per (November 1978). “Distributed processes: a concurrent programming concept” (PDF). Communications of the ACM21 (11): 934–941. CiteSeerX 11610744.
  12. ^ “Inductee Details – Donald Watts Davies”. National Inventors Hall of Fame. Archived from the original on 6 September 2017. Retrieved 6 September 2017.
  13. ^ Roberts, Dr. Lawrence G. (November 1978). “The Evolution of Packet Switching”. Archived from the original on March 24, 2016. Retrieved 5 September 2017. Almost immediately after the 1965 meeting, Donald Davies conceived of the details of a store-and-forward packet switching system; Roberts, Dr. Lawrence G. (May 1995). “The ARPANET & Computer Networks”. Archived from the original on March 24, 2016. Retrieved 13 April 2016. Then in June 1966, Davies wrote a second internal paper, “Proposal for a Digital Communication Network” In which he coined the word packet,- a small sub part of the message the user wants to send, and also introduced the concept of an “Interface computer” to sit between the user equipment and the packet network.
  14. ^ Donald Davies (2001), “A Historical Study of the Beginnings of Packet Switching”Computer Journal, British Computer Society
  15. ^ William Henry Eccles and Frank Wilfred Jordan, “Improvements in ionic relays” British patent number: GB 148582 (filed: 21 June 1918; published: 5 August 1920). Available on-line at: .
  16. ^ “Computer History Museum | Fellow Awards – Steve Furber”. Archived from the original on 2013-04-02.
  17. ^ Gray, Frank (1953-03-17). “Pulse code communication” (PDF). U.S. patent no. 2,632,058
  18. ^ Morgan 1998, pp. 973–975.
  19. ^ Hamming 1950, pp. 147–160.
  20. ^ Ling & Xing 2004, pp. 82–88.
  21. ^ Pless 1982, pp. 21–24.
  22. a b Fathers of the Deep Learning Revolution Receive ACM A.M. Turing Award
  23. ^ “articles58” 29 June 2007. Archived from the original on 29 June 2007. Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  24. ^ “Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots”History Channel. Retrieved 2008-09-06.
  25. ^ Kirsch, Russell A., “Earliest Image Processing”NISTS Museum; SEAC and the Start of Image Processing at the National Bureau of StandardsNational Institute of Standards and Technology, archived from the original on 2014-07-19
  26. ^ Koetsier, Teun (2001). “On the prehistory of programmable machines: musical automata, looms, calculators”. Mechanism and Machine Theory36 (5): 589–603. doi:10.1016/S0094-114X(01)00005-2.
  27. a b G. W. A. Dummer (1997), Electronic Inventions and Discoveries, page 164Institute of Physics
  28. ^ Valerie-Anne Giscard d’Estaing (1990), The Book of Inventions and Discoveries, page 124, Queen Anne Press
  29. a b Lazarus, David (April 10, 1995). “‘Japan’s Edison’ Is Country’s Gadget King : Japanese Inventor Holds Record for Patent”The New York Times. Retrieved 2010-12-21.
  30. ^ YOSHIRO NAKAMATSU – THE THOMAS EDISON OF JAPAN, Stellarix Consultancy Services, 2015
  31. ^ Magnetic record sheet, Patent US3131937
  32. ^ Graphic Arts Japan, Volume 2 (1960), pages 20–22
  33. ^ Nakamoto, Satoshi (24 May 2009). “”Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” (PDF)” (PDF).
  34. ^ Fred Joseph Gruenberger, The History of the JOHNNIAC, RAND Memorandum 5654
  35. ^ “Olivetti Programma 101 Electronic Calculator”The Old Calculator Web Museumtechnically, the machine was a programmable calculator, not a computer.
  36. ^ “2008/107/1 Computer, Programma 101, and documents (3), plastic / metal / paper / electronic components, hardware architect Pier Giorgio Perotto, designed by Mario Bellini, made by Olivetti, Italy, 1965–1971” Retrieved 2016-03-20.
  37. ^ “Olivetti Programma 101 Electronic Calculator”The Old Calculator Web MuseumIt appears that the Mathatronics Mathatron calculator preceeded [sic] the Programma 101 to market.
  38. ^ Aspray, William (1994-05-25). “Oral-History: Tadashi Sasaki”Interview #211 for the Center for the History of Electrical Engineering. The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers, Inc. Retrieved 2013-01-02.
  39. ^ Nigel Tout. “The Busicom 141-PF calculator and the Intel 4004 microprocessor”. Retrieved November 15, 2009.
  40. ^ Federico FagginThe Making of the First MicroprocessorIEEE Solid-State Circuits Magazine, Winter 2009, IEEE Xplore
  41. ^ Japan, Information Processing Society of. “Shima Masatoshi-Computer Museum” Retrieved 25 October 2017.
  42. ^ Claude Shannon (1948). “Bell System Technical Journal”. Bell System Technical Journal.
  43. ^ Copeland, B. Jack (25 October 2017). Zalta, Edward N. (ed.). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Metaphysics Research Lab, Stanford University. Retrieved 25 October 2017 – via Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy.
  44. ^ Wilkinson, J. H. (1971). “Some Comments from a Numerical Analyst”. Journal of the ACM18 (2): 137–147. doi:10.1145/321637.321638S2CID 37748083.
  45. ^ Bachman, C. W. (1973). “The programmer as navigator”Communications of the ACM16 (11): 653–658. doi:10.1145/355611.362534.
  46. a b Rabin, M. O.; Scott, D. (1959). “Finite Automata and Their Decision Problems”IBM Journal of Research and Development3 (2): 114. doi:10.1147/rd.32.0114S2CID 3160330.
  47. a b Rabin, M. O. (1977). “Complexity of computations”Communications of the ACM20 (9): 625–633. doi:10.1145/359810.359816.
  48. a b Scott, D. S. (1977). “Logic and programming languages”Communications of the ACM20 (9): 634–641. doi:10.1145/359810.359826.
  49. ^ Floyd, R. W. (1979). “The paradigms of programming”Communications of the ACM22 (8): 455–460. doi:10.1145/359138.359140.
  50. ^ Milner, R. (1993). “Elements of interaction: Turing award lecture”Communications of the ACM36: 78–89. doi:10.1145/151233.151240.
  51. a b Stearns, R. E. (1994). “Turing Award lecture: It’s time to reconsider time”Communications of the ACM37 (11): 95–99. doi:10.1145/188280.188379.
  52. a b Reddy, R. (1996). “To dream the possible dream”Communications of the ACM39 (5): 105–112. doi:10.1145/229459.233436.
  53. ^ “A.M. Turing Award Laureate – Manuel Blum” Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  54. ^ “A.M. Turing Award Laureate – Amir Pnueli” Retrieved 4 November 2018.
  55. ^ 2007 Turing Award Winners Announced
  56. ^ “Judea Pearl”. ACM.
  57. a b Diffie, W.; Hellman, M. (1976). “New directions in cryptography” (PDF). IEEE Transactions on Information Theory22 (6): 644–654. CiteSeerX
  58. ^ “Cryptography Pioneers Receive 2015 ACM A.M. Turing Award”. ACM.
  59. ^ “Cryptography Pioneers Receive 2015 ACM A.M. Turing Award”. ACM.


External links


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Vannevar Bush

See also: List of pioneers in computer science and Timeline of the History of Computers

” (WP)

Vannevar Bush (/væˈniːvɑːr/ van-NEE-var; March 11, 1890 – June 28, 1974) was an American engineer, inventor and science administrator, who during World War II headed the U.S. Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD), through which almost all wartime military R&D was carried out, including important developments in radar and the initiation and early administration of the Manhattan Project. He emphasized the importance of scientific research to national security and economic well-being, and was chiefly responsible for the movement that led to the creation of the National Science Foundation.[2]

Bush joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) in 1919, and founded the company that became the Raytheon Company in 1922. Bush became vice president of MIT and dean of the MIT School of Engineering in 1932, and president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington in 1938.

During his career, Bush patented a string of his own inventions. He is known particularly for his engineering work on analog computers, and for the memex.[2] Starting in 1927, Bush constructed a differential analyzer, an analog computer with some digital components that could solve differential equations with as many as 18 independent variables. An offshoot of the work at MIT by Bush and others was the beginning of digital circuit design theory. The memex, which he began developing in the 1930s (heavily influenced by Emanuel Goldberg‘s “Statistical Machine” from 1928) was a hypothetical adjustable microfilm viewer with a structure analogous to that of hypertext. The memex and Bush’s 1945 essay “As We May Think” influenced generations of computer scientists, who drew inspiration from his vision of the future.[3]

Bush was appointed to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) in 1938, and soon became its chairman. As chairman of the National Defense Research Committee (NDRC), and later director of OSRD, Bush coordinated the activities of some six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare. Bush was a well-known policymaker and public intellectual during World War II, when he was in effect the first presidential science advisor. As head of NDRC and OSRD, he initiated the Manhattan Project, and ensured that it received top priority from the highest levels of government. In Science, The Endless Frontier, his 1945 report to the President of the United States, Bush called for an expansion of government support for science, and he pressed for the creation of the National Science Foundation.

Early life and education

Vannevar Bush was born in Everett, Massachusetts, on March 11, 1890, the third child and only son of Perry Bush, the local Universalist pastor, and his wife Emma Linwood (née Paine). He had two older sisters, Edith and Reba. He was named after John Vannevar, an old friend of the family who had attended Tufts College with Perry. The family moved to Chelsea, Massachusetts, in 1892,[4] and Bush graduated from Chelsea High School in 1909.[5]

He then attended Tufts, like his father before him. A popular student, he was vice president of his sophomore class, and president of his junior class. During his senior year, he managed the football team. He became a member of the Alpha Tau Omega fraternity, and dated Phoebe Clara Davis, who also came from Chelsea. Tufts allowed students to gain a master’s degree in four years simultaneously with a bachelor’s degree. For his master’s thesis, Bush invented and patented a “profile tracer”. This was a mapping device for assisting surveyors that looked like a lawn mower. It had two bicycle wheels, and a pen that plotted the terrain over which it traveled. It was the first of a string of inventions.[6][7] On graduation in 1913 he received both Bachelor of Science and Master of Science degrees.[8]

After graduation, Bush worked at General Electric (GE) in Schenectady, New York, for $14 a week. As a “test man”, his job was to assess equipment to ensure that it was safe. He transferred to GE’s plant in Pittsfield, Massachusetts, to work on high voltage transformers, but after a fire broke out at the plant, Bush and the other test men were suspended. He returned to Tufts in October 1914 to teach mathematics, and spent the 1915 summer break working at the Brooklyn Navy Yard as an electrical inspector. Bush was awarded a $1,500 scholarship to study at Clark University as a doctoral student of Arthur Gordon Webster, but Webster wanted Bush to study acoustics, a popular field at the time that led many to computer science. Bush preferred to quit rather than study a subject that did not interest him.[9]

Bush subsequently enrolled in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) electrical engineering program. Spurred by the need for enough financial security to marry,[9] he submitted his thesis, entitled Oscillating-Current Circuits: An Extension of the Theory of Generalized Angular Velocities, with Applications to the Coupled Circuit and the Artificial Transmission Line,[10] in April 1916. His adviser, Arthur Edwin Kennelly, demanded more work from him, but Bush refused, and Kennelly was overruled by the department chairman. Bush received his doctorate in engineering jointly from MIT and Harvard University.[9] He married Phoebe in August 1916.[9] They had two sons: Richard Davis Bush and John Hathaway Bush.[11]

Early engineering activities

Bush accepted a job with Tufts, where he became involved with the American Radio and Research Corporation (AMRAD), which began broadcasting music from the campus on March 8, 1916. The station owner, Harold Power, hired him to run the company’s laboratory, at a salary greater than that which Bush drew from Tufts. In 1917, following the United States’ entry into World War I, he went to work with the National Research Council. He attempted to develop a means of detecting submarines by measuring the disturbance in the Earth’s magnetic field. His device worked as designed, but only from a wooden ship; attempts to get it to work on a metal ship such as a destroyer failed.[12]Differential analyzer in use at the Cambridge University Mathematics Laboratory, 1938.

Bush left Tufts in 1919, although he remained employed by AMRAD, and joined the Department of Electrical Engineering at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), where he worked under Dugald C. Jackson. In 1922, he collaborated with fellow MIT professor William H. Timbie on Principles of Electrical Engineering, an introductory textbook. AMRAD’s lucrative contracts from World War I had been cancelled, and Bush attempted to reverse the company’s fortunes by developing a thermostatic switch invented by Al Spencer, an AMRAD technician, on his own time. AMRAD’s management was not interested in the device, but had no objection to its sale. Bush found backing from Laurence K. Marshall and Richard S. Aldrich to create the Spencer Thermostat Company, which hired Bush as a consultant. The new company soon had revenues in excess of a million dollars.[14] It merged with General Plate Company to form Metals & Controls Corporation in 1931, and with Texas Instruments in 1959. Texas Instruments sold it to Bain Capital in 2006, and it became a separate company again as Sensata Technologies in 2010.[15]

In 1924, Bush and Marshall teamed up with physicist Charles G. Smith, who had invented a rectifier called the S-tube. The device enabled radios, which had previously required two different types of batteries, to operate from mains power. Marshall had raised $25,000 to set up the American Appliance Company on July 7, 1922, to build silent refrigerators, with Bush and Smith among its five directors, but changed course and renamed it the Raytheon Company, to make and market the S-tube. The venture made Bush wealthy, and Raytheon ultimately became a large electronics company and defense contractor.[16][14]

Starting in 1927, Bush constructed a differential analyzer, an analog computer that could solve differential equations with as many as 18 independent variables. This invention arose from previous work performed by Herbert R. Stewart, one of Bush’s masters students, who at Bush’s suggestion created the integraph, a device for solving first-order differential equations, in 1925. Another student, Harold Hazen, proposed extending the device to handle second-order differential equations. Bush immediately realized the potential of such an invention, for these were much more difficult to solve, but also quite common in physics. Under Bush’s supervision, Hazen was able to construct the differential analyzer, a table-like array of shafts and pens that mechanically simulated and plotted the desired equation. Unlike earlier designs that were purely mechanical, the differential analyzer had both electrical and mechanical components.[17] Among the engineers who made use of the differential analyzer was General Electric‘s Edith Clarke, who used it to solve problems relating to electric power transmission.[18] For developing the differential analyzer, Bush was awarded the Franklin Institute‘s Louis E. Levy Medal in 1928.[19]

Bush taught binary algebracircuit theory, and operational calculus according to the methods of Oliver Heaviside while Samuel Wesley Stratton was President of MIT. When Harold Jeffreys in Cambridge, England, offered his mathematical treatment in Operational Methods in Mathematical Physics (1927), Bush responded with his seminal textbook Operational Circuit Analysis (1929) for instructing electrical engineering students. In the preface he wrote:

I write as an engineer and do not pretend to be a mathematician. I lean for support, and expect always to lean, upon the mathematician, just as I must lean upon the chemist, the physician, or the lawyer. Norbert Wiener has patiently guided me around many a mathematical pitfall … he has written an appendix to this text on certain mathematical points. I did not know an engineer and a mathematician could have such good times together. I only wish that I could get the real vital grasp of mathematics that he has of the basic principles of physics.

Parry Moon and Stratton were acknowledged, as was M.S. Vallarta who “wrote the first set of class notes which I used.”[20]

An offshoot of the work at MIT was the beginning of digital circuit design theory by one of Bush’s graduate students, Claude Shannon.[21] Working on the analytical engine, Shannon described the application of Boolean algebra to electronic circuits in his landmark master’s thesis, A Symbolic Analysis of Relay and Switching Circuits.[22] In 1935, Bush was approached by OP-20-G, which was searching for an electronic device to aid in codebreaking. Bush was paid a $10,000 fee to design the Rapid Analytical Machine (RAM). The project went over budget and was not delivered until 1938, when it was found to be unreliable in service. Nonetheless, it was an important step toward creating such a device.[23]

The reform of MIT’s administration began in 1930, with the appointment of Karl T. Compton as president. Bush and Compton soon clashed over the issue of limiting the amount of outside consultancy by professors, a battle Bush quickly lost, but the two men soon built a solid professional relationship. Compton appointed Bush to the newly created post of vice president in 1932. That year Bush also became the dean of the MIT School of Engineering. The two positions came with a salary of $12,000 plus $6,000 for expenses per annum.[24]

The companies Bush helped to found and the technologies he brought to the market made him financially secure, so he was able to pursue academic and scientific studies that he felt made the world better in the years before and after World War II.

World War II

Bush attending a meeting at the University of California, Berkeley in 1940. From left to right: Ernest O. LawrenceArthur H. Compton, Bush, James B. ConantKarl T. Compton, and Alfred L. Loomis

Carnegie Institution for Science

In May 1938, Bush accepted a prestigious appointment as president of the Carnegie Institution of Washington (CIW), which had been founded in Washington, D.C. Also known as the Carnegie Institution for Science, it had an endowment of $33 million, and annually spent $1.5 million in research, most of which was carried out at its eight major laboratories. Bush became its president on January 1, 1939, with a salary of $25,000. He was now able to influence research policy in the United States at the highest level, and could informally advise the government on scientific matters.[25] Bush soon discovered that the CIW had serious financial problems, and he had to ask the Carnegie Corporation for additional funding.[26]

Bush clashed over leadership of the institute with Cameron Forbes, CIW’s chairman of the board, and with his predecessor, John Merriam, who continued to offer unwanted advice. A major embarrassment to them all was Harry H. Laughlin, the head of the Eugenics Record Office, whose activities Merriam had attempted to curtail without success. Bush made it a priority to remove him, regarding him as a scientific fraud, and one of his first acts was to ask for a review of Laughlin’s work. In June 1938, Bush asked Laughlin to retire, offering him an annuity, which Laughlin reluctantly accepted. The Eugenics Record Office was renamed the Genetics Record Office, its funding was drastically cut, and it was closed completely in 1944.[26] Senator Robert Reynolds attempted to get Laughlin reinstated, but Bush informed the trustees that an inquiry into Laughlin would “show him to be physically incapable of directing an office, and an investigation of his scientific standing would be equally conclusive.”[27]

Bush wanted the institute to concentrate on hard science. He gutted Carnegie’s archeology program, setting the field back many years in the United States. He saw little value in the humanities and social sciences, and slashed funding for Isis, a journal dedicated to the history of science and technology and its cultural influence.[26] Bush later explained that “I have a great reservation about these studies where somebody goes out and interviews a bunch of people and reads a lot of stuff and writes a book and puts it on a shelf and nobody ever reads it.”[28]

National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

On August 23, 1938, Bush was appointed to the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA), the predecessor of NASA.[25] Its chairman Joseph Sweetman Ames became ill, and Bush, as vice chairman, soon had to act in his place. In December 1938, NACA asked for $11 million to establish a new aeronautical research laboratory in Sunnyvale, California, to supplement the existing Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory. The California location was chosen for its proximity to some of the largest aviation corporations. This decision was supported by the chief of the United States Army Air CorpsMajor General Henry H. Arnold, and by the head of the navy’s Bureau of AeronauticsRear Admiral Arthur B. Cook, who between them were planning to spend $225 million on new aircraft in the year ahead. However, Congress was not convinced of its value, and Bush had to appear before the Senate Appropriations Committee on April 5, 1939. It was a frustrating experience for Bush, since he had never appeared before Congress before, and the senators were not swayed by his arguments. Further lobbying was required before funding for the new center, now known as the Ames Research Center, was finally approved. By this time, war had broken out in Europe, and the inferiority of American aircraft engines was apparent,[29] in particular the Allison V-1710 which performed poorly at high altitudes and had to be removed from the P-51 Mustang in favor of the British Rolls-Royce Merlin engine.[30] The NACA asked for funding to build a third center in Ohio, which became the Glenn Research Center. Following Ames’s retirement in October 1939, Bush became chairman of the NACA, with George J. Mead as his deputy.[29] Bush remained a member of the NACA until November 1948.[31]

National Defense Research Committee

During World War I, Bush had become aware of poor cooperation between civilian scientists and the military. Concerned about the lack of coordination in scientific research and the requirements of defense mobilization, Bush proposed the creation of a general directive agency in the federal government, which he discussed with his colleagues. He had the secretary of NACA prepare a draft of the proposed National Defense Research Committee (NDRC) to be presented to Congress, but after the Germans invaded France in May 1940, Bush decided speed was important and approached President Franklin D. Roosevelt directly. Through the President’s uncle, Frederic Delano, Bush managed to set up a meeting with Roosevelt on June 12, 1940, to which he brought a single sheet of paper describing the agency. Roosevelt approved the proposal in 15 minutes, writing “OK – FDR” on the sheet.[32]

With Bush as chairman, the NDRC was functioning even before the agency was officially established by order of the Council of National Defense on June 27, 1940. The organization operated financially on a hand-to-mouth basis with monetary support from the president’s emergency fund.[33] Bush appointed four leading scientists to the NDRC: Karl Taylor Compton (president of MIT), James B. Conant (president of Harvard University), Frank B. Jewett (president of the National Academy of Sciences and chairman of the Board of Directors of Bell Laboratories), and Richard C. Tolman (dean of the graduate school at Caltech); Rear Admiral Harold G. Bowen, Sr. and Brigadier General George V. Strong represented the military. The civilians already knew each other well, which allowed the organization to begin functioning immediately.[34] The NDRC established itself in the administration building at the Carnegie Institution of Washington.[35] Each member of the committee was assigned an area of responsibility, while Bush handled coordination. A small number of projects reported to him directly, such as the S-1 Section.[36] Compton’s deputy, Alfred Loomis, said that “of the men whose death in the Summer of 1940 would have been the greatest calamity for America, the President is first, and Dr. Bush would be second or third.”[37]

Bush was fond of saying that “if he made any important contribution to the war effort at all, it would be to get the Army and Navy to tell each other what they were doing.”[38] He established a cordial relationship with Secretary of War Henry L. Stimson, and Stimson’s assistant, Harvey H. Bundy, who found Bush “impatient” and “vain”, but said he was “one of the most important, able men I ever knew”.[33] Bush’s relationship with the navy was more turbulent. Bowen, the director of the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), saw the NDRC as a bureaucratic rival, and recommended abolishing it. A series of bureaucratic battles ended with the NRL placed under the Bureau of Ships, and Secretary of the Navy Frank Knox placing an unsatisfactory fitness report in Bowen’s personnel file. After the war, Bowen would again try to create a rival to the NDRC inside the navy.[39]

On August 31, 1940, Bush met with Henry Tizard, and arranged a series of meetings between the NDRC and the Tizard Mission, a British scientific delegation. At a meeting On September 19, 1940, the Americans described Loomis and Compton’s microwave research. They had an experimental 10 cm wavelength short wave radar, but admitted that it did not have enough power and that they were at a dead end. Taffy Bowen and John Cockcroft of the Tizard Mission then produced a cavity magnetron, a device more advanced than anything the Americans had seen, with a power output of around 10 KW at 10 cm,[40] enough to spot the periscope of a surfaced submarine at night from an aircraft. To exploit the invention, Bush decided to create a special laboratory. The NDRC allocated the new laboratory a budget of $455,000 for its first year. Loomis suggested that the lab should be run by the Carnegie Institution, but Bush convinced him that it would best be run by MIT. The Radiation Laboratory, as it came to be known, tested its airborne radar from an Army B-18 on March 27, 1941. By mid-1941, it had developed SCR-584 radar, a mobile radar fire control system for antiaircraft guns.[41]

In September 1940, Norbert Wiener approached Bush with a proposal to build a digital computer. Bush declined to provide NDRC funding for it on the grounds that he did not believe that it could be completed before the end of the war. The supporters of digital computers were disappointed at the decision, which they attributed to a preference for outmoded analog technology. In June 1943, the Army provided $500,000 to build the computer, which became ENIAC, the first general-purpose electronic computer. Having delayed its funding, Bush’s prediction proved correct as ENIAC was not completed until December 1945, after the war had ended.[42] His critics saw his attitude as a failure of vision.[43]

Office of Scientific Research and Development

On June 28, 1941, Roosevelt established the Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) with the signing of Executive Order 8807.[44] Bush became director of the OSRD while Conant succeeded him as chairman of the NDRC, which was subsumed into the OSRD. The OSRD was on a firmer financial footing than the NDRC since it received funding from Congress, and had the resources and the authority to develop weapons and technologies with or without the military. Furthermore, the OSRD had a broader mandate than the NDRC, moving into additional areas such as medical research[45] and the mass production of penicillin and sulfa drugs. The organization grew to 850 full-time employees,[46] and produced between 30,000 and 35,000 reports.[47] The OSRD was involved in some 2,500 contracts,[48] worth in excess of $536 million.[49]

Bush’s method of management at the OSRD was to direct overall policy, while delegating supervision of divisions to qualified colleagues and letting them do their jobs without interference. He attempted to interpret the mandate of the OSRD as narrowly as possible to avoid overtaxing his office and to prevent duplicating the efforts of other agencies. Bush would often ask: “Will it help to win a war; this war?”[50] Other challenges involved obtaining adequate funds from the president and Congress and determining apportionment of research among government, academic, and industrial facilities.[50] His most difficult problems, and also greatest successes, were keeping the confidence of the military, which distrusted the ability of civilians to observe security regulations and devise practical solutions,[51] and opposing conscription of young scientists into the armed forces. This became especially difficult as the army’s manpower crisis really began to bite in 1944.[52] In all, the OSRD requested deferments for some 9,725 employees of OSRD contractors, of which all but 63 were granted.[52] In his obituary, The New York Times described Bush as “a master craftsman at steering around obstacles, whether they were technical or political or bull-headed generals and admirals.”[53]

Proximity fuze

Cut away diagram of the proximity fuze Mark 53

In August 1940, the NDRC began work on a proximity fuze, a fuze inside an artillery shell that would explode when it came close to its target. A radar set, along with the batteries to power it, was miniaturized to fit inside a shell, and its glass vacuum tubes designed to withstand the 20,000 g-force of being fired from a gun and 500 rotations per second in flight.[54] Unlike normal radar, the proximity fuze sent out a continuous signal rather than short pulses.[55] The NDRC created a special Section T chaired by Merle Tuve of the CIW, with Commander William S. Parsons as special assistant to Bush and liaison between the NDRC and the Navy’s Bureau of Ordnance (BuOrd).[54] One of CIW staff members that Tuve recruited to Section T in 1940 was James Van Allen. In April 1942, Bush placed Section T directly under the OSRD, and Parsons in charge. The research effort remained under Tuve but moved to the Johns Hopkins University‘s Applied Physics Laboratory (APL), where Parsons was BuOrd’s representative.[56] In August 1942, a live firing test was conducted with the newly commissioned cruiser USS Cleveland; three pilotless drones were shot down in succession.[57]

To preserve the secret of the proximity fuze, its use was initially permitted only over water, where a dud round could not fall into enemy hands. In late 1943, the Army obtained permission to use the weapon over land. The proximity fuze proved particularly effective against the V-1 flying bomb over England, and later Antwerp, in 1944. A version was also developed for use with howitzers against ground targets.[58] Bush met with the Joint Chiefs of Staff in October 1944 to press for its use, arguing that the Germans would be unable to copy and produce it before the war was over. Eventually, the Joint Chiefs agreed to allow its employment from December 25. In response to the German Ardennes Offensive on December 16, 1944, the immediate use of the proximity fuze was authorized, and it went into action with deadly effect.[59] By the end of 1944, proximity fuzes were coming off the production lines at the rate of 40,000 per day.[58] “If one looks at the proximity fuze program as a whole,” historian James Phinney Baxter III wrote, “the magnitude and complexity of the effort rank it among the three or four most extraordinary scientific achievements of the war.”[60]

The German V-1 flying bomb demonstrated a serious omission in OSRD’s portfolio: guided missiles. While the OSRD had some success developing unguided rockets, it had nothing comparable to the V-1, the V-2 or the Henschel Hs 293 air-to-ship gliding guided bomb. Although the United States trailed the Germans and Japanese in several areas, this represented an entire field that had been left to the enemy. Bush did not seek the advice of Dr. Robert H. Goddard. Goddard would come to be regarded as America’s pioneer of rocketry, but many contemporaries regarded him as a crank. Before the war, Bush had gone on the record as saying, “I don’t understand how a serious scientist or engineer can play around with rockets”,[61] but in May 1944, he was forced to travel to London to warn General Dwight Eisenhower of the danger posed by the V-1 and V-2.[62] Bush could only recommend that the launch sites be bombed, which was done.[63]

Manhattan Project

Bush played a critical role in persuading the United States government to undertake a crash program to create an “atomic bomb“.[64] When the NDRC was formed, the Committee on Uranium was placed under it, reporting directly to Bush as the Uranium Committee. Bush reorganized the committee, strengthening its scientific component by adding Tuve, George B. PegramJesse W. BeamsRoss Gunn and Harold Urey.[65] When the OSRD was formed in June 1941, the Uranium Committee was again placed directly under Bush. For security reasons, its name was changed to the Section S-1.[66]Left to right: Vannevar Bush, James B. Conant, Major General Leslie Groves and Colonel Franklin Matthias at the Hanford Site in July 1945

Bush met with Roosevelt and Vice President Henry A. Wallace on October 9, 1941, to discuss the project. He briefed Roosevelt on Tube Alloys, the British atomic bomb project and its Maud Committee, which had concluded that an atomic bomb was feasible, and on the German nuclear energy project, about which little was known. Roosevelt approved and expedited the atomic program. To control it, he created a Top Policy Group consisting of himself—although he never attended a meeting—Wallace, Bush, Conant, Stimson and the Chief of Staff of the ArmyGeneral George Marshall.[67] On Bush’s advice, Roosevelt chose the army to run the project rather than the navy, although the navy had shown far more interest in the field, and was already conducting research into atomic energy for powering ships. Bush’s negative experiences with the Navy had convinced him that it would not listen to his advice, and could not handle large-scale construction projects.[68][69]

In March 1942, Bush sent a report to Roosevelt outlining work by Robert Oppenheimer on the nuclear cross section of uranium-235. Oppenheimer’s calculations, which Bush had George Kistiakowsky check, estimated that the critical mass of a sphere of Uranium-235 was in the range of 2.5 to 5 kilograms, with a destructive power of around 2,000 tons of TNT. Moreover, it appeared that plutonium might be even more fissile.[70] After conferring with Brigadier General Lucius D. Clay about the construction requirements, Bush drew up a submission for $85 million in fiscal year 1943 for four pilot plants, which he forwarded to Roosevelt on June 17, 1942. With the Army on board, Bush moved to streamline oversight of the project by the OSRD, replacing the Section S-1 with a new S-1 Executive Committee.[71]

Bush soon became dissatisfied with the dilatory way the project was run, with its indecisiveness over the selection of sites for the pilot plants. He was particularly disturbed at the allocation of an AA-3 priority, which would delay completion of the pilot plants by three months. Bush complained about these problems to Bundy and Under Secretary of War Robert P. Patterson. Major General Brehon B. Somervell, the commander of the army’s Services of Supply, appointed Brigadier General Leslie R. Groves as project director in September. Within days of taking over, Groves approved the proposed site at Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and obtained a AAA priority. At a meeting in Stimson’s office on September 23 attended by Bundy, Bush, Conant, Groves, Marshall Somervell and Stimson, Bush put forward his proposal for steering the project by a small committee answerable to the Top Policy Group. The meeting agreed with Bush, and created a Military Policy Committee chaired by him, with Somervell’s chief of staff, Brigadier General Wilhelm D. Styer, representing the army, and Rear Admiral William R. Purnell representing the navy.[72]

At the meeting with Roosevelt on October 9, 1941, Bush advocated cooperating with the United Kingdom, and he began corresponding with his British counterpart, Sir John Anderson.[73] But by October 1942, Conant and Bush agreed that a joint project would pose security risks and be more complicated to manage. Roosevelt approved a Military Policy Committee recommendation stating that information given to the British should be limited to technologies that they were actively working on and should not extend to post-war developments.[74] In July 1943, on a visit to London to learn about British progress on antisubmarine technology,[75] Bush, Stimson, and Bundy met with Anderson, Lord Cherwell, and Winston Churchill at 10 Downing Street. At the meeting, Churchill forcefully pressed for a renewal of interchange, while Bush defended current policy. Only when he returned to Washington did he discover that Roosevelt had agreed with the British. The Quebec Agreement merged the two atomic bomb projects, creating the Combined Policy Committee with Stimson, Bush and Conant as United States representatives.[76]

Bush appeared on the cover of Time magazine on April 3, 1944.[77] He toured the Western Front in October 1944, and spoke to ordnance officers, but no senior commander would meet with him. He was able to meet with Samuel Goudsmit and other members of the Alsos Mission, who assured him that there was no danger from the German project; he conveyed this assessment to Lieutenant General Bedell Smith.[78] In May 1945, Bush became part of the Interim Committee formed to advise the new president, Harry S. Truman, on nuclear weapons.[79] It advised that the atomic bomb should be used against an industrial target in Japan as soon as possible and without warning.[80] Bush was present at the Alamogordo Bombing and Gunnery Range on July 16, 1945, for the Trinity nuclear test, the first detonation of an atomic bomb.[81] Afterwards, he took his hat off to Oppenheimer in tribute.[82]

Before the end of the Second World War, Bush and Conant had foreseen and sought to avoid a possible nuclear arms race. Bush proposed international scientific openness and information sharing as a method of self-regulation for the scientific community, to prevent any one political group gaining a scientific advantage. Before nuclear research became public knowledge, Bush used the development of biological weapons as a model for the discussion of similar issues, an “opening wedge”. He was less successful in promoting his ideas in peacetime with President Harry Truman, than he had been under wartime conditions with Roosevelt.[2][83]

In “As We May Think“, an essay published by the Atlantic Monthly in July 1945, Bush wrote: “This has not been a scientist’s war; it has been a war in which all have had a part. The scientists, burying their old professional competition in the demand of a common cause, have shared greatly and learned much. It has been exhilarating to work in effective partnership.”[84]

Post-war years

Memex concept

Bush introduced the concept of the memex during the 1930s, which he imagined as a form of memory augmentation involving a microfilm-based “device in which an individual stores all his books, records, and communications, and which is mechanized so that it may be consulted with exceeding speed and flexibility. It is an enlarged intimate supplement to his memory.”[84] He wanted the memex to emulate the way the brain links data by association rather than by indexes and traditional, hierarchical storage paradigms, and be easily accessed as “a future device for individual use … a sort of mechanized private file and library” in the shape of a desk.[84] The memex was also intended as a tool to study the brain itself.[84]Bush conceived the encyclopedia of the future as having a mesh of associative trails running through it, akin to hyperlinks, stored in a memex system.

After thinking about the potential of augmented memory for several years, Bush set out his thoughts at length in “As We May Think“, predicting that “wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified”.[84] “As We May Think” was published in the July 1945 issue of The Atlantic. A few months later, Life magazine published a condensed version of “As We May Think”, accompanied by several illustrations showing the possible appearance of a memex machine and its companion devices.[85]

Shortly after “As We May Think” was originally published, Douglas Engelbart read it, and with Bush’s visions in mind, commenced work that would later lead to the invention of the mouse.[86] Ted Nelson, who coined the terms “hypertext” and “hypermedia“, was also greatly influenced by Bush’s essay.[87][88]

“As We May Think” has turned out to be a visionary and influential essay.[89] In their introduction to a paper discussing information literacy as a discipline, Bill Johnston and Sheila Webber wrote in 2005 that:

Bush’s paper might be regarded as describing a microcosm of the information society, with the boundaries tightly drawn by the interests and experiences of a major scientist of the time, rather than the more open knowledge spaces of the 21st century. Bush provides a core vision of the importance of information to industrial / scientific society, using the image of an “information explosion” arising from the unprecedented demands on scientific production and technological application of World War II. He outlines a version of information science as a key discipline within the practice of scientific and technical knowledge domains. His view encompasses the problems of information overload and the need to devise efficient mechanisms to control and channel information for use.[90]

Bush was concerned that information overload might inhibit the research efforts of scientists. Looking to the future, he predicted a time when “there is a growing mountain of research. But there is increased evidence that we are being bogged down today as specialization extends. The investigator is staggered by the findings and conclusions of thousands of other workers.”[84]

National Science Foundation

The OSRD continued to function actively until some time after the end of hostilities, but by 1946–1947 it had been reduced to a minimal staff charged with finishing work remaining from the war period; Bush was calling for its closure even before the war had ended. During the war, the OSRD had issued contracts as it had seen fit, with just eight organizations accounting for half of its spending. MIT was the largest to receive funds, with its obvious ties to Bush and his close associates. Efforts to obtain legislation exempting the OSRD from the usual government conflict of interest regulations failed, leaving Bush and other OSRD principals open to prosecution. Bush therefore pressed for OSRD to be wound up as soon as possible.[91]

With its dissolution, Bush and others had hoped that an equivalent peacetime government research and development agency would replace the OSRD. Bush felt that basic research was important to national survival for both military and commercial reasons, requiring continued government support for science and technology; technical superiority could be a deterrent to future enemy aggression. In Science, The Endless Frontier, a July 1945 report to the president, Bush maintained that basic research was “the pacemaker of technological progress”. “New products and new processes do not appear full-grown,” Bush wrote in the report. “They are founded on new principles and new conceptions, which in turn are painstakingly developed by research in the purest realms of science!”[92] In Bush’s view, the “purest realms” were the physical and medical sciences; he did not propose funding the social sciences.[93] In Science, The Endless Frontier, science historian Daniel Kevles later wrote, Bush “insisted upon the principle of Federal patronage for the advancement of knowledge in the United States, a departure that came to govern Federal science policy after World War II.”[94]Bush (left) with Harry S. Truman (center) and James B. Conant (right)

In July 1945, the Kilgore bill was introduced in Congress, proposing the appointment and removal of a single science administrator by the president, with emphasis on applied research, and a patent clause favoring a government monopoly. In contrast, the competing Magnuson bill was similar to Bush’s proposal to vest control in a panel of top scientists and civilian administrators with the executive director appointed by them. The Magnuson bill emphasized basic research and protected private patent rights.[95] A compromise Kilgore–Magnuson bill of February 1946 passed the Senate but expired in the House because Bush favored a competing bill that was a virtual duplicate of Magnuson’s original bill.[96] A Senate bill was introduced in February 1947 to create the National Science Foundation (NSF) to replace the OSRD. This bill favored most of the features advocated by Bush, including the controversial administration by an autonomous scientific board. The bill passed the Senate and the House, but was pocket vetoed by Truman on August 6, on the grounds that the administrative officers were not properly responsible to either the president or Congress.[97] The OSRD was abolished without a successor organization on December 31, 1947.[98]

Without a National Science Foundation, the military stepped in, with the Office of Naval Research (ONR) filling the gap. The war had accustomed many scientists to working without the budgetary constraints imposed by pre-war universities.[99] Bush helped create the Joint Research and Development Board (JRDB) of the Army and Navy, of which he was chairman. With passage of the National Security Act on July 26, 1947, the JRDB became the Research and Development Board (RDB). Its role was to promote research through the military until a bill creating the National Science Foundation finally became law.[100] By 1953, the Department of Defense was spending $1.6 billion a year on research; physicists were spending 70 percent of their time on defense related research, and 98 percent of the money spent on physics came from either the Department of Defense or the Atomic Energy Commission (AEC), which took over from the Manhattan Project on January 1, 1947.[101] Legislation to create the National Science Foundation finally passed through Congress and was signed into law by Truman in 1950.[102]

The authority that Bush had as chairman of the RDB was much different from the power and influence he enjoyed as director of OSRD and would have enjoyed in the agency he had hoped would be independent of the Executive branch and Congress. He was never happy with the position and resigned as chairman of the RDB after a year, but remained on the oversight committee.[103] He continued to be skeptical about rockets and missiles, writing in his 1949 book, Modern Arms and Free Men, that intercontinental ballistic missiles would not be technically feasible “for a long time to come … if ever”.[104]

Panels and boards

From left to right in a November 1969 photo, Dr. Glenn Seaborg, President Richard Nixon, and the three awardees of the Atomic Pioneers Award: Dr. Vannevar Bush, Dr. James B. Conant, and Gen. Leslie Groves.

With Truman as president, men like John R. Steelman, who was appointed chairman of the President’s Scientific Research Board in October 1946, came to prominence.[105] Bush’s authority, both among scientists and politicians, suffered a rapid decline, though he remained a revered figure.[106] In September 1949, he was appointed to head a scientific panel that included Oppenheimer to review the evidence that the Soviet Union had tested its first atomic bomb. The panel concluded that it had, and this finding was relayed to Truman, who made the public announcement.[107] During 1952 Bush was one of five members of the State Department Panel of Consultants on Disarmament, and led the panel in urging that the United States postpone its planned first test of the hydrogen bomb and seek a test ban with the Soviet Union, on the grounds that avoiding a test might forestall development of a catastrophic new weapon and open the way for new arms agreements between the two nations.[108] The panel lacked political allies in Washington, however, and the Ivy Mike shot went ahead as scheduled.[108] Bush was outraged when a security hearing stripped Oppenheimer of his security clearance in 1954; he issued a strident attack on Oppenheimer’s accusers in The New York TimesAlfred Friendly summed up the feeling of many scientists in declaring that Bush had become “the Grand Old Man of American science”.[109]

Bush continued to serve on the NACA through 1948 and expressed annoyance with aircraft companies for delaying development of a turbojet engine because of the huge expense of research and development as well as retooling from older piston engines.[110] He was similarly disappointed with the automobile industry, which showed no interest in his proposals for more fuel-efficient engines. General Motors told him that “even if it were a better engine, [General Motors] would not be interested in it.”[111] Bush likewise deplored trends in advertising. “Madison Avenue believes”, he said, “that if you tell the public something absurd, but do it enough times, the public will ultimately register it in its stock of accepted verities.”[112]

From 1947–1962, Bush was on the board of directors for American Telephone and Telegraph. He retired as president of the Carnegie Institution and returned to Massachusetts in 1955,[109] but remained a director of Metals and Controls Corporation from 1952–1959, and of Merck & Co. 1949–1962.[113] Bush became chairman of the board at Merck following the death of George W. Merck, serving until 1962. He worked closely with the company’s president, Max Tishler, although Bush was concerned about Tishler’s reluctance to delegate responsibility. Bush distrusted the company’s sales organization, but supported Tishler’s research and development efforts.[114] He was a trustee of Tufts College 1943–1962, of Johns Hopkins University 1943–1955, of the Carnegie Corporation of New York 1939–1950, the Carnegie Institution of Washington 1958–1974, and the George Putnam Fund of Boston 1956–1972, and was a regent of the Smithsonian Institution 1943–1955.[115]

Final years and death

After suffering a stroke, Bush died in Belmont, Massachusetts, at the age of 84 from pneumonia on June 28, 1974. He was survived by his sons Richard (a surgeon) and John (president of Millipore Corporation) and by six grandchildren and his sister Edith. Bush’s wife had died in 1969.[116] He was buried at South Dennis Cemetery in South Dennis, Massachusetts,[117] after a private funeral service. At a public memorial subsequently held by MIT,[118] Jerome Wiesner declared “No American has had greater influence in the growth of science and technology than Vannevar Bush”.[113]

Awards and honors

In 1980, the National Science Foundation created the Vannevar Bush Award to honor his contributions to public service.[123] The Vannevar Bush papers are located in several places, with the majority of the collection held at the Library of Congress. Additional papers are held by the MIT Institute Archives and Special Collections, the Carnegie Institution, and the National Archives and Records Administration.[124][125][126]This inscription honoring Vannevar Bush is in the lobby of MIT‘s Building 13, which is named after him, and is the home of the Center for Materials Science and Engineering.[127]

See also


(complete list of published papers: Wiesner 1979, pp. 107–117).


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  99. ^ Hershberg 1993, p. 397.
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  101. ^ Hershberg 1993, pp. 305–309.
  102. ^ Zachary 1997, pp. 368–369.
  103. ^ Zachary 1997, pp. 336–345.
  104. ^ Hershberg 1993, p. 393.
  105. ^ Zachary 1997, pp. 330–331.
  106. ^ Zachary 1997, pp. 346–347.
  107. ^ Zachary 1997, pp. 348–349.
  108. a b Bernstein, Barton J. (Fall 1987). “Crossing the Rubicon: A Missed Opportunity to Stop the H-Bomb?”. International Security14 (2): 139–142, 145–149. JSTOR 2538857.
  109. a b Zachary 1997, pp. 377–378.
  110. ^ Dawson 1991, p. 80.
  111. ^ Zachary 1997, p. 387.
  112. ^ Zachary 1997, p. 386.
  113. a b Wiesner 1979, p. 108.
  114. ^ Werth 1994, p. 132.
  115. a b c Wiesner 1979, p. 107.
  116. ^ Wiesner 1979, p. 105.
  117. ^ “Dennis 1974 Annual Town Reports” (PDF). Retrieved June 14, 2012.
  118. ^ Zachary 1997, p. 407.
  119. ^ “Vannevar Bush”IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved July 25, 2011.
  120. ^ “Public Welfare Award”. National Academy of Sciences. Archived from the original on June 4, 2011. Retrieved February 14, 2011.
  121. ^ “The President’s National Medal of Science”National Science Foundation. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
  122. ^ Nixon, Richard (February 27, 1970). “Remarks on Presenting the Atomic Pioneers Award”. The American Presidency Project. Archived from the original on February 1, 2013. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
  123. ^ “Vannevar Bush Award”National Science Foundation. Retrieved April 22, 2012.
  124. ^ “Vannevar Bush Papers, 1921–1975”. Manuscript Collection. MIT Institute Archives & Special Collections. MC 78. Retrieved May 26, 2012.
  125. ^ “Vannevar Bush Papers 1901–1974”Library of Congress. Retrieved May 21,2012.
  126. ^ “Carnegie Institution of Washington Administration Records, 1890–2001”. Carnegie Institution of Washington. Retrieved May 21, 2012.
  127. ^ Wiesner 1979, p. 101.


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Java Software Engineering

Joshua Bloch

Joshua Bloch is a professor at Carnegie Mellon University. He was formerly the chief Java architect at Google, a distinguished engineer at Sun Microsystems, and a senior systems designer at Transarc. He led the design and implementation of numerous Java platform features, including the JDK 5.0 language enhancements and the Java Collections Framework. He holds a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University and a B.S. in computer science from Columbia University. He is the author of Effective Java.

Bloch in 2008

BornAugust 28, 1961 (age 59)
Southampton, New York
Alma materColumbia University (B.S.)
Carnegie Mellon University (Ph.D.)
Scientific career
InstitutionsCarnegie Mellon University
Doctoral advisorAlfred Spector

Joshua J. Bloch (born August 28, 1961) is an American software engineer and a technology author, formerly employed at Sun Microsystems and Google. He led the design and implementation of numerous Java platform features, including the Java Collections Framework, the java.math package, and the assert mechanism.[1] He is the author of the programming guide Effective Java (2001), which won the 2001 Jolt Award,[2] and is a co-author of two other Java books, Java Puzzlers (2005) and Java Concurrency In Practice (2006).” (WP)

Bloch holds a B.S. in computer science from Columbia University and a Ph.D. in computer science from Carnegie Mellon University.[1] His 1990 thesis was titled A Practical Approach to Replication of Abstract Data Objects[3] and was nominated for the ACM Distinguished Doctoral Dissertation Award.[4]

Bloch has worked as a Senior Systems Designer at Transarc, and later as a Distinguished Engineer at Sun Microsystems. In June 2004, he left Sun and became Chief Java Architect at Google.[5] On August 3, 2012, Bloch announced that he would be leaving Google.[6]

In December 2004, Java Developer’s Journal included Bloch in its list of the “Top 40 Software People in the World”.[7]

Bloch has proposed the extension of the Java programming language with two features: Concise Instance Creation Expressions (CICE) (coproposed with Bob Lee and Doug Lea) and Automatic Resource Management (ARM) blocks. The combination of CICE and ARM formed one of the three early proposals for adding support for closures to Java.[8] ARM blocks were added to the language in JDK7.[9]

Bloch is currently an affiliated faculty member of the Institute for Software Research at Carnegie Mellon University, where he holds the title “Adjunct Professor of the Practice“.[10]



  1. a b “About the Author”Effective Java Programming Language Guide
  2. ^ 2002 Jolt & Productivity Award Winners Archived 2007-05-03 at the Wayback Machine. Dr. Dobb’s Portal.
  3. ^ A Practical Approach to Replication of Abstract Data Objects. Computer Science Department, School of Computer Science, Carnegie Mellon University. May 1990.
  4. ^ Books & Authors: Effective Java, accessed 16 April 2008
  5. ^ Heiss, Janet J. (2007). “Rock Star Josh Bloch”JavaOne. Archived from the original on 27 October 2007.
  6. ^ Joshua Bloch, After eight years at Google, the time has come for me to move on
  7. ^ Geelan, Jeremy (2004-12-21). “The i-Technology Right Stuff”Java Developer’s Journal.
  8. ^ Kreft, Klaus; Langer, Angelika (17 June 2008). “Understanding the closures debate”JavaWorld. Retrieved 2020-07-20.
  9. ^ Darcy, Joseph D. (28 August 2009). “Project Coin: The Final Five (Or So)”Joseph D. Darcy’s Oracle Weblog. Oracle. Retrieved 6 May 2014.
  10. ^ “Faculty”Institute for Software ResearchCarnegie Mellon University. Retrieved 31 August 2020.

External links



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Java Software Engineering

Simon Roberts

Simon started out working as a software engineer, specializing in industrial control systems, and had a sideline teaching for a local University in his then-home-town of Cambridge, England.

In 1995 he joined Sun Microsystems, Inc. as a senior instructor and course developer. Simon spearheaded the introduction of Java training by Sun Microsystems in the U.K. in 1995. He developed the first Java certification exams for Sun before he moved to the U.S. in 1998.

Since leaving Sun in 2004, Simon has developed and delivered training for clients around the world.

Simon believes that training should have an immediate purpose and application, and that the most effective training is usually “on the job” mentoring, helping to remove the immediate roadblocks to productivity that so often plague workers in fast moving environments.

Excellent classes:


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Java Software Engineering

Herbert Schildt

See also Java: The Complete Reference, Java Programming Language, Java Glossary, Java Bibliography, Java Reference materials

Herbert Schildt is an American computing author, programmer and musician. He has written books about various programming languages. He was also a founding member of the progressive rock band Starcastle.

Called “one of the world’s foremost authors of books about programming” by International Developer magazine, best-selling author Herbert Schildt has written about programming for over three decades. His books have sold millions of copies worldwide and have been widely translated. Featured as one of the rock star programmers in Ed Burns’ book “Secrets of the Rock Star Programmers”, Schildt is interested in all facets of computing, but his primary focus is computer languages. He is the author of numerous books on Java, C, C++, and C#. Schildt holds BA and MCS degrees from the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign.


Schildt holds both graduate and undergraduate degrees from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). He claims he was a member of the original ANSI committee that standardized the C language in 1989, and the ANSI/ISO committees that updated that standard in 1999, and standardized C++ in 1998.[1][unreliable source?] Other members of the ANSI C committee have drawn his presence in the committee and the quality of his committee efforts into question.[2][3]

Schildt has written books about DOS,[4] C, C++, C# and other computer languages. His earliest books were published around 1985 and 1986. (The book Advanced Modula-2 from 1987 says on the cover that it is his sixth book.) His books were initially published by Osborne, an early computer book publisher which concentrated on titles for the personal computer. After the acquisition of Osborne by McGraw-Hill, the imprint continued publishing Schildt’s work until the imprint was subsumed completely into the larger company.

Little C

One of Schildt’s most enduring projects is the Little C interpreter, which is a lengthy example of a hand-written recursive-descent parser which interprets a subset of the C language. The program was originally published in Dr. Dobb’s Journal in August, 1989 entitled “Building your own C interpreter”.[5] This example was included in the books Born to Code In C (Osborne, 1989), The Craft of C (Osborne, 1992),[6] and in a later edition of C: The Complete Reference.

Schildt’s book The Art of C++ similarly features an interpreter for a language called Mini-C++. (Mini-C++ does not support the “class” keyword, although minimal and artificial support for cin and cout has been added.) There is also a BASIC interpreter called Small BASIC in Turbo C: The Complete Reference, first edition, written in C, and another in The Art of Java (2003) written in Java.[7]

Code for all these is available for download from the McGraw Hill technical books website, under each book.[8]


In addition to his work as a computer scientist, Schildt is the original multi-keyboardist for the progressive rock band Starcastle, appearing on all of the group’s albums, most of which were produced from 1976-1978. His style is distinguished by extensive use of Oberheim analog sequencers to create ethereal washes of sound colors, a pioneering technique which was quite cutting-edge for the pre-digital synthesizer period. He is also featured on the band’s 2007 album “Song of Times.”[9]


Schildt is called “one of the world’s foremost authors of books about programming” by International Developer magazine.[10] He is featured as one of the rock star programmers in Ed Burns’ book Secrets of the Rock Star Programmers.[11] His books have sold in the millions, worldwide.[12]

Schildt’s books have a reputation for being riddled with errors.[13] Their technical accuracy has been challenged by many reviewers, including ISO C committee members Peter Seebach[2] and Clive Feather,[14] C FAQ author Steve Summit,[15] and numerous C Vu reviewers from the Association of C and C++ Users (ACCU).[16]

Other reviewers have been more positive, with one ACCU reviewer saying about Schildt’s C: The Complete Reference, Fourth Edition that Schildt “has learnt something, not enough to receive positive acclaim but enough to remove the ‘positively detrimental’ epithet”.[17]

Bibliography (of selected books)


  1. ^ “About Herb Schildt”official site. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  2. a b Seebach, Peter. “C: The Complete Nonsense (4th Edition)”. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  3. ^ Clive Feather (18 January 2008). “Re: To Richard Heathfield from spinoza1111”. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
  4. ^ Shannon, L.R. (August 6, 1991). “PERIPHERALS; MS-DOS: The Latest Literature Helps Out”The New York Times. New York, New York. Retrieved 2010-04-29.
  5. ^ Herb Schildt (August 1, 1989). “Building Your Own C Interpreter”Dr. Dobb’s Journal. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  6. ^ Ian Ormesher (Sep 1993). “ACCU Reviews: The Craft of C”C VuACCU. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  7. ^ The Art of Java, page 88, online at Google Books.
  8. ^ “Free Downloads: Samples and Code” McGraw-Hill Professional website. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
  9. ^ “Starcastle History – Prog rock”Starcastle official site. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  10. ^
  11. ^ Burns, Ed (2008). Secrets of the Rock Star Programmers: Riding the IT CrestISBN 978-0071490832.
  12. ^
  13. ^ Seebach, Peter. “C: The Complete Nonsense (3rd Edition)”. Retrieved 2010-04-22.
  14. ^ Feather, Clive. “The Annotated Annotated C Standard”.
  15. ^ Summit, Steve (1996). C Programming FAQs. Addison-Wesley. pp. 169–170ISBN 0-201-84519-9Unfortunately, the book contains numerous errors and omissions, primarily in the annotations, and a few pages of the standard itself are missing. Many people on the Internet recommend ignoring the annotations entirely.
  16. ^ “Schildt” Reviews in C Vu, from the ACCU, last updated 13 May 2001. Retrieved 2010-04-22.
  17. ^ Francis Glassborow. “Book Review: C: The Complete Reference 4ed”ACCU. Retrieved 28 September 2013.

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Java Software Engineering

James Gosling

See also Java Programming Language, Java Glossary, Java Bibliography, Java Reference materials

James Arthur Gosling, often referred to as “Dr. Java”, OC (born May 19, 1955) is a Canadian computer scientist, best known as the founder and lead designer behind the Java programming language.[3]

James Gosling 2008.jpg
BornJames Gosling
May 19, 1955 (age 65)
CalgaryAlberta, Canada
Alma materUniversity of Calgary
(BSc, 1977)
Carnegie Mellon University
(MAPhD, 1983)
Known forJava (programming language)
TitleDr. Java
AwardsOfficer of the Order of CanadaIEEE John von Neumann Medal The Economist Innovation AwardNAE Foreign Member
Scientific career
InstitutionsSun MicrosystemsOracle CorporationGoogleLiquid Robotics[1]Amazon Web Services
ThesisAlgebraic Constraints (1983)
Doctoral advisorBob Sproull and Raj Reddy[2

Early life

James Gosling received a Bachelor of Science from the University of Calgary [4] and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Carnegie Mellon University, all in computer science.[2][5][6] He wrote a version of Emacs called Gosling Emacs (Gosmacs) while working toward his doctorate. He built a multi-processor version of Unix for a 16-way computer system[7] while at Carnegie Mellon University, before joining Sun Microsystems. He also developed several compilers and mail systems there.

Career & contributions

Gosling was with Sun Microsystems between 1984 and 2010 (26 years). At Sun he invented an early Unix windowing system called NeWS, which became a lesser-used alternative to the still used X Window, because Sun did not give it an open source license.[citation needed]

He is known as the father of the Java programming language.[8][9] He got the idea for the Java VM while writing a program to port software from a PERQ by translating Perq Q-Code to VAX assembler and emulating the hardware. He is generally credited with having invented the Java programming language in 1994.[10][11][12] He created the original design of Java and implemented the language’s original compiler and virtual machine.[13] Gosling traces the origins of the approach to his early graduate student days, when he created a p-code virtual machine for the lab’s DEC VAX computer, so that his professor could run programs written in UCSD Pascal. In the work leading to Java at Sun, he saw that architecture-neutral execution for widely distributed programs could be achieved by implementing a similar philosophy: always program for the same virtual machine.[14] Another contribution of Gosling’s was co-writing the “bundle” program, known as “shar”, a utility thoroughly detailed in Brian Kernighan and Rob Pike‘s book The Unix Programming Environment.[15]

He left Sun Microsystems on April 2, 2010, after it was acquired by the Oracle Corporation,[8] citing reductions in pay, status, and decision-making ability, along with change of role and ethical challenges.[16] He has since taken a very critical stance towards Oracle in interviews, noting that “during the integration meetings between Sun and Oracle, where we were being grilled about the patent situation between Sun and Google, we could see the Oracle lawyer’s eyes sparkle.”[9] He clarified his position during the Oracle v. Google trial over Android: “While I have differences with Oracle, in this case they are in the right. Google totally slimed Sun. We were all really disturbed, even Jonathan [Schwartz]: he just decided to put on a happy face and tried to turn lemons into lemonade, which annoyed a lot of folks at Sun.”[17] However, he approved of the court’s ruling that APIs should not be copyrightable.[18]

In March 2011, Gosling joined Google.[19] Six months later, he followed his colleague Bill Vass and joined a startup called Liquid Robotics.[1] In late 2016, Liquid Robotics was acquired by Boeing.[20] Following the acquisition, Gosling left Liquid Robotics to work at Amazon Web Services as Distinguished Engineer in May 2017.[21]

He is an advisor at the Scala company Lightbend,[22] Independent Director at Jelastic,[23] and Strategic Advisor for Eucalyptus,[24] and is a board member of DIRTT Environmental Solutions.[25]

He is known for his love of proving “the unknown”[clarification needed] and has noted but later clarified to be untrue that his favorite irrational number is √2. He has a framed picture of the first 1,000 digits of √2 in his office.[26]


For his achievement, the National Academy of Engineering in the United States elected him as a Foreign Associate member.[27]


  • Ken Arnold, James Gosling, David Holmes, The Java Programming Language, Fourth Edition, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2005, ISBN 0-321-34980-6
  • James Gosling, Bill JoyGuy L. Steele Jr.Gilad BrachaThe Java Language Specification, Third Edition, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2005, ISBN 0-321-24678-0
  • Ken Arnold, James Gosling, David Holmes, The Java Programming Language, Third Edition, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2000, ISBN 0-201-70433-1
  • James Gosling, Bill Joy, Guy L. Steele Jr., Gilad Bracha, The Java Language Specification, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, 2000, ISBN 0-201-31008-2
  • Gregory Bollella (Editor), Benjamin Brosgol, James Gosling, Peter Dibble, Steve Furr, David Hardin, Mark Turnbull, The Real-Time Specification for Java, Addison Wesley Longman, 2000, ISBN 0-201-70323-8
  • Ken Arnold, James Gosling, The Java programming language Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1997, ISBN 0-201-31006-6
  • Ken Arnold, James Gosling, The Java programming language, Addison-Wesley, 1996, ISBN 0-201-63455-4
  • James Gosling, Bill Joy, Guy L. Steele Jr., The Java Language Specification, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1996, ISBN 0-201-63451-1
  • James Gosling, Frank Yellin, The Java Team, The Java Application Programming Interface, Volume 2: Window Toolkit and Applets, Addison-Wesley, 1996, ISBN 0-201-63459-7
  • James Gosling, Frank Yellin, The Java Team, The Java Application Programming Interface, Volume 1: Core Packages, Addison-Wesley, 1996, ISBN 0-201-63453-8
  • James Gosling, Henry McGilton, The Java language Environment: A white paperSun Microsystems, 1996
  • James Gosling, David S. H. Rosenthal, Michelle J. Arden, The NeWS Book : An Introduction to the Network/Extensible Window System (Sun Technical Reference Library), Springer, 1989, ISBN 0-387-96915-2

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to James Gosling.


  1. a b I’ve moved again : On a New Road. Retrieved on 2016-05-17.
  2. a b James Gosling at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  3. ^ “James Gosling – Computing History” Retrieved 2017-10-09.
  4. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
  5. ^ Gosling, James (1983). Algebraic Constraints (PhD thesis). Carnegie Mellon University. ProQuest 303133100.
  6. ^ Phd Awards By Advisor. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  7. ^ James Gosling mentioned a multiprocessor Unix in his statement during the US vs Microsoft Antitrust DOJ trial in 1998 “DOJ/Antitrust”Statement in MS Antitrust case. US DOJ. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
  8. a b Guevin, Jennifer. “Java co-creator James Gosling leaves Oracle”CNET. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  9. a b Shankland, Stephen. (2011-03-28) Java founder James Gosling joins Google. CNET Retrieved on 2012-02-21.
  10. ^ Allman, E. (2004). “Interview: A Conversation with James Gosling”Queue2(5): 24. doi:10.1145/1016998.1017013.
  11. ^ Gosling, J. (1997). “The feel of Java”. Computer30 (6): 53–57. doi:10.1109/2.587548.
  12. ^ “Sun Labs-The First Five Years: The First Fifty Technical Reports. A Commemorative Issue”Ching-Chih Chang, Amy Hall, Jeanie Treichel. Sun Microsystems, Inc. 1998. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
  13. ^ Gosling, James (2004-08-31). “A Conversation with James Gosling”ACM Queue. ACM. Retrieved 2014-07-03. At Sun he is best known for creating the original design of Java and implementing its original compiler and virtual machine.
  14. ^ McMillan, W.W. (2011). “The soul of the virtual machine: Java’s abIlIty to run on many dIfferent kInds of computers grew out of software devised decades before”. IEEE Spectrum48 (7): 44–48. doi:10.1109/MSPEC.2011.5910448S2CID 40545952.
  15. ^ Kernighan, Brian W; Pike, Rob (1984). The Unix Programming Environment. Prentice Hall. pp. 97-100ISBN 0-13-937681-X.
  16. ^ Darryl K. Taft. (2010-09-22) Java Creator James Gosling: Why I Quit Oracle.
  17. ^ My attitude on Oracle v Google. Retrieved on 2016-05-17.
  18. ^ “Meltdown Averted” Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  19. ^ Next Step on the Road. Retrieved on 2016-05-17.
  20. ^ “Boeing to Acquire Liquid Robotics to Enhance Autonomous Seabed-to-Space Information Services”. December 6, 2016.
  21. ^ Darrow, Barb (May 23, 2017). “Legendary Techie James Gosling Joins Amazon Web Services” Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  22. ^ Typesafe — Company: Team. Retrieved on 2012-02-21.
  23. ^ James Gosling and Bruno Souza Join Jelastic as Advisers. Retrieved on 2014-11-24.
  24. ^ Eucalyptus Archived 2013-04-25 at the Wayback Machine. Retrieved on 2013-04-22
  25. ^ “James Gosling”DIRTT Environmental Solutions Ltd.
  26. ^ UserGroupsatGoogle (29 November 2010). “James Gosling on Apple, Apache, Google, Oracle and the Future of Java”YouTube. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  27. ^ “NAE Members Directory – Dr. James Arthur Gosling”NAE. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  28. ^ The 2002 Economist Innovation Award Winner Archived 2012-04-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ “Flame Award” 6 December 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  30. ^ “Governor”. Archived from the original on February 7, 2008. Retrieved August 28, 2016.. February 20, 2007
  31. ^ ACM Names Fellows for Computing Advances that Are Transforming Science and Society Archived 2014-07-22 at the Wayback MachineAssociation for Computing Machinery, accessed 2013-12-10.
  32. ^ “IEEE JOHN VON NEUMANN MEDAL : RECIPIENTS” (PDF). Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  33. ^ Computer History Museum names James Gosling a 2019 Fellow



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History Software Engineering

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See also: List of pioneers in computer science and Timeline of the History of Computers

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Buddha-Dharma-Sangha History

! Template Buddhist Authors

Bringing the Buddha Dharma to the West.

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Buddha-Dharma-Sangha History

Walpola Sri Rahula

The seminal book of bringing the Buddha Dharma to the West called What the Buddha Taught was written in 1959 by Walpola Sri Rahula

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Buddha-Dharma-Sangha History

! Template Buddhist Great Arhat

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Bibliography Buddha-Dharma-Sangha History

Buddhlogists – Modern Buddhist Scholars

Contributors’ Biographical Notes (EoBDK)

REP – Ron EpsteinBuddhism A to Z

ABE – Alexander Berzin – Berzin Archives, BerzSB

REB – Robert E. Buswell, Jr.PDoB

DSL – Donald S. Lopez Jr.PDoB

CMLJ – Cloud Monk Losang Jinpa

MBA – “Martin Baumann is Professor of the Study of Religions at the University of Lucerne, Switzerland. He obtained his Ph.D. with a thesis on the history and processes of adaptation of Buddhism in Germany (1993). His post-doctorial thesis (habilitation) on Hindu tradition in the Caribbean analyzed patterns of diaspora identities and changes (1999). He has been research fellow at the University of Hanover and visiting professor at the university of Bremen (both Germany), writing a study on Vietnamese Buddhists and Tamil Hindus in Germany (2000). His fields of interests are the spread and adaptation of Buddhist and Hindu traditions outside of Asia, diaspora and migrant studies, and theory and method in the study of religions. He is the general editor of the online Journal of Global Buddhism and author of numerous articles in both German and English. He has co-edited Westward Dharma: Buddhism Beyond Asia (2002) with Charles S. Prebish, Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopaedia of Beliefs and Practices (2002) with J. Gordon Melton, and Tempel und Tamilen in zweiter Heimat (2003) with Brigitte Luchesi and Annette Wilke. He is member of the board of the Swiss Association for the Study of Religions, research affiliate of the Pluralism Project, Harvard University, member of the editorial boards of the Journal of Contemporary Religion, King’s College London, and the RoutledgeCurzon Critical Studies in Buddhism Series, and member of the editorial advisory board of the series Contemporary Religions in Global Perspective, Ashgate Publishing, Aldershot UK.” (EoBDK)

GDB – “George D. Bond is Professor of Religion in the Religion Department of Northwestern University. Specializing in Bud-dhist studies and the history of religion, he works primarily on Theravāda Buddhism studying the texts and the practices of Buddhism in Sri Lanka and Southeast Asia. He received his Ph.D. from Northwestern University and also studied at the University of Sri Lanka. One of his doctoral mentors was the Venerable Dr. Walpola Rahula. His teaching focuses on Buddhism, Hinduism, and the history of religion. He has been a recipient of the Charles Deering McCormick Professorship of Teaching Excellence, the Northwestern Alumni Association’s Award for Excellence in Teaching and the Weinberg College of Arts and Sciences Teaching Award. His publications include: The Buddhist Revival in Sri Lanka (1988), The Word of the Buddha (1980), Sainthood: Its Manifestations in World Religions (1988), which he co-authored and edited with Richard Kieckhefer; and Buddhism at Work: Community Development, Social Empowerment and the Sarvodaya Movement (2004). He has also written numerous articles on Buddhist texts and Buddhist practice, including a recent article, entitled “The Contemporary Lay Meditation Movement and Lay Gurus in Sri Lanka,” which appeared in Religion (2004). Currently he is working on a book about socially engaged Buddhist movements. He has served as president of the Midwest region of the American Academy of Religion and as co-chair, with Charles Prebish, of the Buddhism Section of the national American Academy of Religion. He has been an officer and a board member of the American Institute for Sri Lanka Studies and has served as the Overseas Director for the Center of the American Institute for Sri Lanka Studies in Colombo, Sri Lanka.” (EoBDK)

JDE – “Jim Deitrick holds a Ph.D. in Religion and Social Ethics from the School of Religion at the University of Southern California. He is Assistant Professor of Comparative Philosophy and Religion and Director of the Interdisciplinary Programs in Religious Studies and Asian Studies at the University of Central Arkansas. His teaching and research focus on Western engagements with Asian philosophical and religious traditions and the consequences of such engagements for contemporary social ethical theory and practice. He was awarded the Yvonne Leonard Dissertation Fellowship for his doctoral dissertation, “Mistaking the Boat for the Shore? A Critical Analysis of Socially Engaged Buddhist Social Ethics in the United States.”” (EoBDK)

MLF – “Mavis L. Fenn received her Ph.D. from McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. She is at St. Paul’s College (University of Waterloo), Ontario, Canada. She teaches Asian Religion for the Department of Religious Studies. Her research interests include women in Buddhism and the adaptation of Buddhism to the West. Her most recent articles are “Buddhist Diversity in Ontario” co-authored with Kay Koppedrayer at Wilfrid Laurier University, Ontario, Canada, and “The Kutadanta Sutta: Tradition in Tension.” She is currently working on two projects: “Buddhism on a Canadian Campus” and “Buddhist Women in Canada” with Janet McClellan at Wilfrid Laurier University.” (EoBDK)

CHA – “Charles Hallisey is Associate Professor of Languages and Cultures of Asia at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. He completed his doctoral research on Devotion in the Buddhist Literature of Medieval Sri Lanka at the Divinity School, the University of Chicago, and subsequently taught at Loyola University of Chicago and Harvard University. He has published widely in the fields of South Asian Buddhism and Buddhist ethics.” (EoBDK)

PHA – “Peter Harvey is Professor of Buddhist Studies at the University of Sunderland, UK, from where he teaches a web-based MA Buddhist Studies ( Co-founder of the UK Association for Buddhist Studies (, we he was President 2002–6. He is the author of An Introduction to Buddhism: Teachings, History and Practices (Cambridge University Press, 1990, with a second edition to be published by 2007), The Selfless Mind: Personality, Consciousness and Nirvāṇa in Early Bud-dhism (Richmond, UK: Curzon Press, 1995), An Introduction to Buddhist Ethics: Foundations, Values and Issues (Cambridge University Press, 2000), Buddhism (edited volume, London and New York: Continuum, 2001). He is a meditation teacher in the Theravādin Samatha Trust tradition (” (EoBDK)

RPH – “Richard P. Hayes got his doctorate in Indian philosophy in the South Asian Studies program at University of Toronto in 1982. After completing his studies he taught in the Department of Philosophy and the Religious Studies Program at University of Toronto. He taught Buddhist Studies in the Faculty of Religious Studies at McGill University from 1988 until 2003. He is currently in the Department of Philosophy at the University of New Mexico. His principal research focus has been on Indian Buddhist scholastics who wrote in Sanskrit, especially on the school of Dignāga and Dharmakīrti.” (EoBDK)

CBJ – “Charles B. Jones is an Associate Professor in the School of Theology and Religious Studies in the Catholic University of America. Aside from publishing in the area of East Asian Buddhism, he is also the executive director of the Institute for Interreligious Study and Dialogue, in which capacity he has published articles on Buddhist-Christian dialogue and Christian theological responses to other religions. He was the recipient of a Fulbright research fellowship in 2004–5, during which time he was a visiting scholar at the Institute of History and Philology, Academia Sinica, Taipei, where he pursued research on Pure Land Buddhist belief among the literati of late Ming dynasty China. His latest book is The View from Mars Hill: Christianity in the Landscape of World Religions (Cowley, 2005).” (EoBDK)

DKE – “Damien Keown is Professor of Buddhist Ethics at Goldsmiths College, University of London, where he has taught Bud-dhism since 1981. After taking a first degree in Religious Studies at Lancaster University he specialized in Buddhism and completed a doctorate at the Oriental Institute, University of Oxford, on Buddhist ethics. Since then he has helped pioneer the development of this field and has published widely on the subject, authoring and editing numerous books and many articles and chapters and speaking at international conferences. In 1994 he and Charles Prebish co-founded the award winning Journal of Buddhist Ethics, and subsequently the Routledge-Curzon Critical Studies in Buddhism Series and the Journal of Buddhist Ethics Online Books series of electronic textbooks on religion. Damien Keown was elected a Fellow of the Royal Asiatic Society in 1985, and was Spalding Trust Visiting Fellow in Comparative Religion, Clare Hall, Cambridge, in 1996–97 and a visiting professor at the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium, in 2002. He is a member of numerous professional bodies in religion and was Secretary of the UK Association of Buddhist Studies 2002–5.” (EoBDK)

JNK – “Jacob N. Kinnard is Assistant Professor of Comparative Religious Thought at Iliff School of Theology, where he teaches graduate courses on the religions of India and methodological and theoretical issues in the history of religions. He holds a B.A. from Bowdoin College, and an M.A. and Ph.D. from the University of Chicago. He is the author of Imaging Wisdom: Seeing and Knowing in the Art of Indian Buddhism (Routledge Curzon, 1999) and The Emergence of Buddhism (Greenwood, 2006), and co-editor of Constituting Communities: Theravāda Traditions in South and Southeast Asia (SUNY, 2003). He has written numerous articles on a variety of issues in Buddhist studies, and is currently working on a book on the relationship between Hinduism and Buddhism as it is played out at several shared pilgrimage places in India. Professor Kinnard is editor of the Cultural Criticism series for Oxford University Press/AAR, and a member of the Publication Committee of the American Academy of Religion.” (EoBDK)

LRL – “Lewis R. Lancaster is President of University of the West, Rosemead, California, and Professor Emeritus of East Asian languages and Buddhist Studies at the University of California, Berkeley. For many years Professor Lancaster was in charge of University of California at Berkeley’s Ph.D. program in the Group in Buddhist Studies. His recent publications include “The Koryŏ Edition of the Buddhist Canon: New Sources for Research” (in Sang-oak Lee and Duk-soo Park, eds., Perspective on Korea, Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, dist, 1998); “The Dunhuang Manuscripts: The Current State of Research” and “Fragments and Forgeries: Strategies for Judging Authenticity,” (in Susan Whitfield, ed., Dunhuang Manuscript Forgeries, London: British Library Studies in Conservation Science, Vol. 3, 2002); and “Virtual Reality Within the Humanities,” (in Maurizio Forte, ed., The Reconstruction of Archaeological Landscapes through Digital Technologies, BAR International Series 1379: London, 2005). His print publication, The Korean Buddhist Canon: A Descriptive Catalogue (in collaboration with Sung-bae Park, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1970), has been digitized by Charles Muller and posted at his website ( Professor Lancaster has been active in the world of computers, organizing the Electronic Buddhist Text Initiative, a consortium of more than forty groups around the world dealing with Buddhism and the new technology, and the Electronic Cultural Atlas Initiative (ECAI) which makes use of GIS software. As one of the organizers of the Summit Conference on Digital Tools for the Humanities at the University of Virginia in 2005, he continues to work toward a more effective use of technology in scholarship.” (EoBDK)

KCL – “Karen C. Lang is Professor of Buddhist Studies in the Department of Religious Studies at the University of Virginia. She teaches undergraduate and graduate courses on Buddhism and reading courses in Sanskrit, Pali and Tibetan languages. Her research interests focus on the intellectual history of Indian Buddhism. Her publications include Āryade-va’s Catuhśataka: On the Bodhisattva’s Cultivation of Merit and Knowledge (Akademisk Vorlag, 1986) and Four Illusions: Candrakīrti’s Advice on the Bodhisattva’s Practice of Yoga (Oxford University Press, 2003), and numerous articles on Indian Buddhist philosophy and literature.” (EoBDK)

DLM – “David L. McMahan is Associate Professor of Religious Studies at Franklin and Marshall College in Pennsylvania and received his Ph.D. from the University of California at Santa Barbara. He is the author of Empty Vision: Metaphor and Visionary Imagery in Mahayana Buddhism (RoutledgeCurzon, 2002) and is writing on a book on the development of modern Buddhism to be published by Oxford University Press.” (EoBDK)

JYP – “Jin Y. Park is Assistant Professor of Philosophy and Religion at American University. She is editor of the forthcoming Buddhisms and Deconstructions (Rowman and Littlefield), translator of Getting Familiar with Death (Won Pub-lications, 1999) and author of journal articles and book chapters including: “Zen and Zen Philosophy of Language,” “Zen Language in Our Time: The Case of Pojo Chinul’s Huatou Meditation,” and “Gendered Response to Modernity: Kim Iryeop and Buddhism.”” (EoBDK)

RKP – Richard K. Payne is Dean of the Institute of Buddhist Studies, an affiliate of both the Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, and Ryukoku University, Kyoto. He is also a Shingon Buddhist priest (acari), ordained on Koyasan in 1982. While specializing in the study of Shingon ritual, he has published on the Pure Land tradition as well. His recent publications include Discourse and Ideology in Medieval Japanese Buddhism (co-edited with Taigen Dan Leighton, Routledge-Curzon, 2005), Tantric Buddhism in East Asia (Wisdom Publications, 2005), and Approaching the Land of Bliss (co-edited with Kenneth K. Tanaka, University of Hawai’i Press, 2004). He is Chair of the Editorial Committee for Pacific World: Journal of the Institute of Buddhist Studies, and Editor in Chief of the Pure Land Buddhist Studies Series, jointly pub-lished by Brill Academic and University of Hawai’i Press.” (EoBDK)

JPO – John Powers received his Ph.D. in Buddhist Studies from University of Virginia in 1991. He is the author of nine books, including Introduction to Tibetan Buddhism (Ithaca: Snow Lion Publications, 1995) and History as Propaganda: Tibetan Exiles Versus the People’s Republic of China (New York: Oxford University Press, 2004). He has also published over seventy articles on a variety of subjects, including Buddhist philosophy, human rights issues, and contemporary Buddhist movements.” (EoBDK)

CSP – “Charles S. Prebish has been Professor of Religious Studies at the Pennsylvania State University for more than thirty-five years. He holds a Ph.D. from the University of Wisconsin, where he served as Research Assistant to Richard H. Robinson. He is the author of seventeen books, and nearly 100 articles and chapters. He is a former officer in the International Association of Buddhist Studies and a founding Co-Chair of the Buddhism Section of the American Academy of Religion. He is also a past president of the Association of Peer Reviewed Electronic Journals in Religion. In 1994, along with Damien Keown, he co-founded the award-winning Journal of Bud-dhist Ethics, and in 2000 co-founded the Journal of Global Buddhism with Martin Baumann. With Damien Keown, he is co-editor of the RoutledgeCurzon Critical Studies in Buddhism series. Also with Damien Keown, he created the Journal of Buddhist Ethics Online Books series, which was the first scholarly eBook textbook series. In 1993 he held the Numata Chair in Buddhist Studies as “Distinguished Visiting Professor” at the University of Calgary, and in 1997–8 won a Rockefeller Foundation National Humanities Fellowship to conduct research on North American Buddhism at the Centre for the Study of Religion at the University of Toronto. His major research work has focused on the Indian Buddhist monastic and sectarian traditions, on the academic study of Buddhism, and on the development of Western Buddhism, an area in which he is considered the leading pioneer whose efforts led to the emergence of this topic as a legitimate sub-discipline in the larger field of Buddhist Studies. His long contribution to Buddhist Studies has recently been honored by the publication of a festschrift volume entitled Buddhist Studies from India to America: Essays in Honor of Charles Prebish.” (EoBDK)

JSC – “Juliane Schober (Ph.D., Anthropology) is Associate Professor of Religious Studies and a former director of the Program for Southeast Asian Studies at Arizona State University. Her research focuses on Theravāda Buddhism in Burma, particularly on ritual, sacred geography, and veneration of images. Her publications include an edited volume on Sacred Bio-graphy in the Buddhist Traditions of South and Southeast Asia (University of Hawai’i Press, 1997). She has con-tributed to a number of encyclopedia projects. Her recent essay on “Buddhist Visions of Moral Authority and Civil Society: The Search for the Post-Colonial State in Burma” appeared in Burma at the Turn of the Twenty-First Century (M. Skidmore, ed., Honolulu: University of Hawai’i Press, 2005: 113–33). Her present project traces the genealogies on modern Buddhism in Burma during the country’s precolonial, colonial and independent eras. “Buddhism and Modernity in Myanmar” appears in Buddhism in World Cultures: Contemporary Perspectives (ABC-Clio, S. Berkwitz, ed., forthcoming 2006).” (EoBDK)

ASP – “Alan Sponberg has taught Buddhist Studies for twenty-five years at Princeton University, Stanford University, and currently at the University of Montana, where he is Professor of Asian Philosophy and Religion and Director of the Asian Studies Program. He also teaches courses periodically at the Buddhist Library of Singapore and the Nagarjuna Institute in Nagpur, India. His publications focus on the transmission of early Mahāyāna Buddhism from India to China and reflect additional ongoing interests in Buddhist ethics and contemporary Buddhism in Asia and the West. He has lived in Nepal, India and Japan, and is currently helping to organize Dharmapala College, an internationally based two-year Buddhist seminary program under the auspices of the Western Buddhist Order.” (EoBDK)

PLS – “Paul L. Swanson is a permanent Research Fellow and Director of the Nanzan Institute for Religion and Culture, and Professor in the Faculty of Humanities at Nanzan University in Nagoya, Japan. His major focuses of research are on Tiantai/Tendai Buddhism and Shu-gendo. In addition to editing the Japanese Journal of Religious Studies, he has published widely in the field of Buddhist Studies and Japanese religions, including Foundations of Tien-t’ai Philosophy (Asian Humanities Press, 1989), Religion and Society in Modern Japan (Asian Humanities Press, 1993), Pruning the Bodhi Tree (University of Hawai’i Press, 1997), and the Nanzan Guide to Japanese Religions (University of Hawai’i Press, 2006). His annotated translation of the Chinese Buddhist classic Mo-ho chih-kuan has been released in provisional digital form on CD-ROM as The Great Cessation and Contemplation (2004).” (EoBDK)

KTR – “Kevin Trainor is Associate Professor of Religion at the University of Vermont. He received his Ph.D. from Columbia University in 1990. His areas of research include Indian Buddhism and Theravāda Buddhism in Sri Lanka, with a particular focus on the history of Buddhist relic veneration. His book publications include Relics, Ritual, and Representation in Buddhism: Rematerializing the Sri Lankan Theravāda Tradition (Cambridge University Press, 1997), Buddhism: The Illustrated Guide (Oxford University Press, 2004; general editor), and Embodying the Dharma: Buddhist Relic Veneration in Asia (SUNY Press, 2004; co-editor with David Germano). His articles, including work on the Therīgāthā (Verses of the Elder Nuns), on relic theft in Sri Lankan Buddhism, and on Sāñcī, have been published in Journal of the American Academy of Religion, Numen, and Mārg. He was co-organizer and co-chair, with David Germano, of a four-year seminar on Buddhist relic veneration at the annual meeting of the American Academy of Religion, 1994–7. He has been a Fulbright senior scholar at the University of Kelaniya in Sri Lanka and a visiting scholar at Cornell University. He is currently completing a book exploring the modern history of the Dhammapada as an object of cultural exchange and appropriation.” (EoBDK)

JSW – “Jonathan S. Walters (B.A., Bowdoin; A.M., Ph.D., University of Chicago) is currently Associate Professor of Religion and Asian Studies, and Paul Garrett Fellow in the Humanities at Whitman College, Walla Walla, Washington. He previously taught at the University of Chicago, Northwestern University and the University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka, and his research and long-term fieldwork in rural Sri Lanka have been supported by the Fulbright Foundation, the National Endowment for the Humanities and the Arthur and Lois Graves Foundation. He is author or editor of The History of Kelaniya, Finding Buddhists in Global History, Querying the Medieval: Texts and the History of Practices in South Asia (with Ronald B. Inden and Daud Ali) and Constituting Communities: Theravada Buddhism and the Religious Cultures of South and Southeast Asia (edited with John C. Holt and Jacob Kinnard), in addition to numerous shorter publications in the general area of South Asian (and especially Sri Lankan) Buddhist history, culture and politics, ancient to contemporary. He currently serves on the Board of Directors of the American Institute of Sri Lankan Studies and as International Representative of the Committee for the Protection of the Eppawala Phosphate Deposit, a grassroots Buddhist environmentalist movement in Sri Lanka’s ancient North Central Province.” (EoBDK)

AWI – “Ananda Wickremeratne graduated with honors in History from the University of Ceylon in 1961, and soon became a member of its faculty. The award of a Commonwealth Scholarship from the UK in 1963 enabled him to pursue his doctoral research in Oxford, which he successfully completed in 1966. Following the grant of a Commonwealth Academic Staff Fellowship, also by the British government, he spent 1974–5 as a visiting fellow to the University of London. He left Sri Lanka in 1979 to assume to two fellowships in Harvard in the Department of Anthropology and the Center for the Study of World Religions. At the time he left Sri Lanka he had obtained a merit promotion to an Associate Professorship. He relocated to Chicago and continues to be an Associate Member of the University of Chicago. Currently, he is a Senior Lecturer in the Theology Department of Loyola University Chicago and teaches courses in Buddhism at the Northwestern University, and religion in the School of Continuing Studies, also at Northwestern University. Wickremeratne is the author of The Genesis of an Orientalist: Thomas William Rhys Davids in Sri Lanka (Missouri: South Asia Books, 1994), Buddhism and Ethnicity in Sri Lanka: A Historical Analysis (New Delhi: Vikas, 1995), and The Roots of Nationalism in Sri Lanka (Colombo: Marga Institute, 1995). Wickremeratne has in addition published numerous articles in academic journals in Sri Lanka, England, and the USA.” (EoBDK)

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Buddha-Dharma-Sangha History

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Venerable Master Hsuan Hua of the City of 10,000 Buddhas – Dharma Realm Buddhist Association

Venerable Master Hsuan Hua of the City of 10,000 Buddhas – Dharma Realm Buddhist Association

“The Venerable Master, whose Dharma name is An Tse and style name is Tu Lun, received the Dharma from the Venerable Master Hsu Yun and became the Ninth Patriarch of the Wei Yang Lineage. His name is Hsuan Hua, and he is also called The Monk in the Grave. A native of Shuangcheng County of Jilin Province, he was born on the sixteenth day of the third lunar month in the year of Wu at the end of the Qing Dynasty. His father’s name was Bai Fuhai. His mother, whose maiden name was Hu, ate only vegetarian food and recited the Buddha’s name throughout her life. When she was pregnant with the Master, she prayed to the Buddhas and Bodhisatrvas. The night before his birth, in a dream, she saw Amitabha Buddha emitting brilliant light. Following that the Master was born.

As a child, the Master followed his mother’s example and ate only vegetarian food and recited the Buddha’s name. At the age of eleven, he became aware of the great matter of birth and death and the brevity of life and resolved to leave the home-life. At fifteen, he took refuge under the Venerable Master Chang Zhi. When he was nineteen, his mother passed away, and he requested Venerable Master Chang Zhi of Sanyuan Temple to shave his head. Dressed in the left-home robes, he built a simple hut by his mother’s grave and observed the practice of filial piety. During that period, he bowed to the Avatamsaka Sutra, performed worship and pure repentance, practiced Chan meditation, studies the teachings and comtemplations, and strictly kept the rule of eating only one meal at midday. As his skill grew ever more pure, he won the admiration and respect of the villagers. His intensely sincere efforts to purify and cultivate himself moved the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas as well as the Dharma-protecting gods and dragons. The miraculous responses were too many to be counted. As news of these supernatural events spread far and wide, the Master came to be regarded as a remarkable monk.

Esteeming the Venerable Master Hsu Yun as a great hero of Buddhism, the Master went to pay homage to him in 1946. The Venerable Master Hsu Yun saw that the Master would become an outstanding figure in the Dharma, and transmitted the Dharma-pulse to him, making him the Ninth Patriarch of the Wei Yang Lineage, the forty-sixth generation since the Patriarch Mahakashyapa.

In 1948, the Master bid farewell to the Venerable Master Hsu Yun and went to Hong Kong to propagate the Dharma. He gave equal importance to the five schools-Chan, Doctrine, Vinaya, Esoteric, and Pure Land-thus putting an end to prejudice towards any particular sect. The Master also renovated old temples, printed Sutras and constructed images. He established Western Bliss Garden Monastery, the Buddhist Lecture Hall, and Qixing Monastery. Delivering lectures on numerous Sutras, the Master caused Buddhism to flourish in Hong Kong.

In 1959, the Master saw tht conditions were ripe in the West, and he instructed his disciples to establish the Sino-American Buddhist Association (later renamed the Dharma Realm Buddhist Association) in the United States. In 1962, at the invitation of American Buddhists, the Master traveled alone to the United States, where he raised the banner of proper Dharma at the Buddhist Lecture Hall in San Francisco.

In 1968, the Shurangama Study and Practice Summer Session was held, and several dozen students from the University of Washington in Seattle came to study the Buddhadharma. After the session was concluded, five young Americans requested permission to shave their heads and leave the home-life, marking the beginning of the Sangha in the history of American Buddhism. Since then, the number of American disciples who have left the home-life under the Venerable Master has continued to grow, creating a profound and far-reaching impact on the propagation of the Buddhadharma and the translation of Sutras in the West.

The Master’s explanations of Sutras and lectures on Dharma are profound and yet easy to understand. Several decades have passed in a flash, and the Master has ascended the Dharma seat and delivered well over ten thousand Dharma lectures. Over a hundred of his explanations have been translated into English. No one else has overseen the translation of so many Sutras into English. In 1973 the Master established the International Translation Institute, which plans to translate the entire Buddhist Canon into the languages of every country, so that the Buddhadharma will spread throughout the world.

In 1974, the Master purchased the City ofTen Thousand Buddhas and established the Dharma Realm Buddhist University and the Sangha and Laity Training Programs in order to train Buddhist professionals on an international scale. Furthermore, he founded Instilling Goodness Elementary School and Developing Virtue Secondary School in order to save children’s minds from corruption. Over subsequent years, the Master has successively established Gold Mountain Monastery, Gold Wheel Monastery, Gold Summit Monastery, Gold Buddha Monastery, Avatamsaka Monastery, Dharma Realm Monastery, Amitabha Monastery, the City of the Dharma Realm, and other Way-places of the proper Dharma. Dedicating himself to serving others, the Master doesn’t mind the toil and suffering. Acting as a model for others in founding schools and expounding the teachings, and in order to promote the talent of future generations, the Master has offered the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas as the “Refuge for the Buddhists of the World.” The traditions at the City of Ten Thousand Buddhas are strict, and residents vigorously strive to practice the Six Great Principles established by the Master after he left the home-life: do not content, do not be greedy, do not seek, do not be selfish, do not pursue personal benefit, and do not tell lies. Due to the influence of the Venerable Master’s integrity and cultivation, the City ofTen Thousand Buddhas has become an important Buddhist Way-place in the United State. The Master has composed a verse expressing his principles:

The Venerable Master’s profound samadhi and wisdom have truly opened up the great way of Bodhi for living beings in the age of the Dharma’s decline. It is as if in the dark night, we suddenly see the lamp of Prajna wisdom, and in the obscurity, we smell the fragrance of the Dharma lineage. It is like a pure lotus which grows out of the mud and blooms. Upon realizing the inconceivable state of a great cultivator, we are moved to express our praise and exaltation.

1. I vow that as long as there is a single Bodhisattva in the three periods of time throughout the ten directions of the Dharma Realm, to the very end of empty space, who has not accomplished Buddhahood, I too will not attain the right englightenment.

2. I vow that as long as there is a single Pratyekabuddha in the three periods of time throughout the ten directions of the Dharma Realm, to the very end of empty space, who has not accomplished Buddhahood, I too will not attain the right enlightenment.

3. I vow that as long as there is a single Shravaka in the three periods of time throughout the ten directions of the Dharma Realm, to the very end of empty space, who has not accomplished Buddhahood, I too will not attain the right enlightenment.

4. I vow that as long as there is a single god in the Triple Realm who has not accomplished Buddhahood, I too will not attain the right enlightenment.

5. I vow that as long as there is a single human being in the worlds of the ten directions who has not accomplished Buddhahood, I too will not attain the right enlightenment.

6. I vow that as long as there is a single god, human and asura who has not accomplished Buddhahood, I too will not attain the right enlightenment.

7. I vow that as long as there is a single animal who has not accomplished Buddhahood, I too will not attain the right enlightenment.

8. 1 vow that as long as there is a single hungry ghost who has not accomplished Buddhahood, I too will not attain the right enlightenment.

9. I vow that as long as there is a single hell-dweller who has not accomplished Buddhahood, I too will not attain the right enlightenment.

10. I vow that as long as there is a single god, immortal, human, asura, air-bound or water-bound creature, animate creature or inanimate object, or a single dragon, beast, ghost, or spirit, and so forth, of the spiritual realm that has taken refuge with me and has not accomplished Buddhahood, I too will not attain the right enlightenment.

11. I vow to fully dedicate all blessings and bliss which I myself ought to receive and enjoy to all living beings of the Dharma Realm.

12. I vow to fully take upon myself all sufferings and hardships of all the living beings in the Dharma Realm.

13. I vow to manifest innumerable bodies as a means to gain access into the minds of living beings throughout the universe who do not believe in the Buddhadharma, causing them to correct their faults and tend toward wholesomeness, repent of their errors and start anew, take refuge in the Triple Jewel, and ultimately accomplish Buddhahood.

14. I vow that all living beings who see my face or even hear my name will bring forth the Bodhi resolve and quickly accomplish Buddhahood.

15. I vow to respectfully observe the Buddha’s instructions and cultivate the practice of eating only one meal per day.

16. I vow to enlighten all sentient beings, universally responding to the multitude of differing potentials.

17. I vow to obtain the five eyes, six spiritual powers, and the freedom of being able to fly in this very life.

18. I vow that all of my vows will certainly be fulfilled.


The poem “White Universe” was composed by the Venerable Master on February 15, 1972, during a session for recitation of the Six-syllable Great Bright Mantra (Om mani padme hum) at Gold Mountain Dhyana Monastery. The fourfold assembly of disciples sincerely recited around the clock without fatigue, praying for world peace. Upon the completion of the seven-day session, the Venerable Master was inspired to compose this poem. “White Universe” signifies that the entire universe has been purified, so that it is luminous and immaculately white. In order for the universe to be free from defilement, we must cultivate vigorously and begin by “sparing neither blood nor sweat, and never pausing to rest.”

When Buddhism first came to China from India, one of the most important tasks required for its establishment was the translation of the Buddhist scriptures from Sanskrit into Chinese. This work involved a great many people, such as the renowned monk National Master Kumarajiva (fifth century), who led an assembly of over 800 people to work on the translation of the Tripitaka (Buddhist canon) for over a decade. Because of the work of individuals such as these, nearly the entire Buddhist Tripitaka of over a thousand texts exists to the present day in Chinese.

Now the banner of the Buddhas Teachings is being firmly planted in Western soil, and the same translation work is being done from Chinese into English. Since 1970, the Buddhist Text Translation Society (BITS) has been making a paramount contribution toward this goal. Aware that the Buddhist Tripitaka is a work of such magnitude that its translation could never be entrusted to a single person, the BTTS, emulating the translation assemblies of ancient times, does not publish a work until it has passed through four committees for primary translation, revision, editing, and certification. The leaders of these committees are Bhikshus (monks) and Bhikshunis (nuns) who have devoted their lives to the study and practice of the Buddha’s teachings. For this reason, all of the works of the BTTS put an emphasis on what the principles of the Buddha’s teachings mean in terms of actual practice and not simply hypothetical conjecture.

The translations of canonical works by the Buddhist Text Translation Society are accompanied by extensive commentaries by the Venerable Tripitaka Master Hsuan Hua and are available in softcover only unless otherwise noted.”

The City of Ten Thousand Buddhas

Namo Dharma Protector Weituo Bodhisattva


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