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Bibliography DevOps Networking Python Software Engineering

B08M6CT2R3 ISBN-13: 978-1839217166

See: Mastering Python for Networking and Security: Leverage the scripts and libraries of Python version 3.7 and beyond to overcome networking and security issues, 2nd Edition Kindle Edition

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Systems Analysis / Analyst

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The Merriam-Webster dictionary defines system analysis as “the process of studying a procedure or business in order to identify its goals and purposes and create systems and procedures that will achieve them in an efficient way”. Another view sees system analysis as a problem-solving technique that breaks down a system into its component pieces for the purpose of the studying how well those component parts work and interact to accomplish their purpose.[1]

The field of system analysis relates closely to requirements analysis or to operations research. It is also “an explicit formal inquiry carried out to help a decision maker identify a better course of action and make a better decision than they might otherwise have made.”[2]

The terms analysis and synthesis stem from Greek, meaning “to take apart” and “to put together,” respectively. These terms are used in many scientific disciplines, from mathematics and logic to economics and psychology, to denote similar investigative procedures. Analysis is defined as “the procedure by which we break down an intellectual or substantial whole into parts,” while synthesis means “the procedure by which we combine separate elements or components in order to form a coherent whole.” [3] System analysis researchers apply methodology to the systems involved, forming an overall picture.

System analysis is used in every field where something is developed. Analysis can also be a series of components that perform organic functions together, such as system engineering. System engineering is an interdisciplinary field of engineering that focuses on how complex engineering projects should be designed and managed.

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Software Maintenance

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Software maintenance in software engineering is the modification of a software product after delivery to correct faults, to improve performance or other attributes.[1]

A common perception of maintenance is that it merely involves fixing defects. However, one study indicated that over 80% of maintenance effort is used for non-corrective actions.[2] This perception is perpetuated by users submitting problem reports that in reality are functionality enhancements to the system.[citation needed] More recent studies put the bug-fixing proportion closer to 21%.[3]

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Reliability Engineering

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Reliability engineering is a sub-discipline of systems engineering that emphasizes the ability of equipment to function without failure. Reliability describes the ability of a system or component to function under stated conditions for a specified period of time.[1] Reliability is closely related to availability, which is typically described as the ability of a component or system to function at a specified moment or interval of time.

The Reliability function is theoretically defined as the probability of success at time t, which is denoted R(t). This probability is estimated from previous data sets or through reliability testing. AvailabilityTestabilitymaintainability and maintenance are often defined as a part of “reliability engineering” in reliability programs. Reliability can play a key role in the cost-effectiveness of systems; for example, a consumer product in many cases will have a higher resale value, if it fails less often.

Reliability and quality are closely related. Normally quality focuses on the prevention of defects during the warranty phase whereas reliability looks at preventing failures during the useful lifetime of the product or system from commissioning, through operation, to decommissioning [2].

Reliability engineering deals with the prediction, prevention and management of high levels of “lifetime” engineering uncertainty and risks of failure. Although stochastic parameters define and affect reliability, reliability is not only achieved by mathematics and statistics.[3][4] Reliability engineering can be achieved through process and reliability testing. “Nearly all teaching and literature on the subject emphasize these aspects, and ignore the reality that the ranges of uncertainty involved largely invalidate quantitative methods for prediction and measurement.”[5] For example, it is easy to represent “probability of failure” as a symbol or value in an equation, but it is almost impossible to predict its true magnitude in practice, which is massively multivariate, so having the equation for reliability does not begin to equal having an accurate predictive measurement of reliability.

Reliability engineering relates closely to Quality Engineering, safety engineering and system safety, in that they use common methods for their analysis and may require input from each other. It can be said that a system must be reliably safe.

Reliability engineering focuses on costs of failure caused by system downtime, cost of spares, repair equipment, personnel, and cost of warranty claims.

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SRE Site Reliability Engineering

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Site reliability engineering (SRE) is a discipline that incorporates aspects of software engineering and applies them to infrastructure and operations problems.[1] The main goals are to create scalable and highly reliable software systems. According to Ben Treynor, founder of Google‘s Site Reliability Team, SRE is “what happens when a software engineer is tasked with what used to be called operations.”[2]

Roles

A site reliability engineer (SRE) will spend up to 50% of their time doing “ops” related work such as issues, on-call, and manual intervention. Since the software system that an SRE oversees is expected to be highly automatic and self-healing, the SRE should spend the other 50% of their time on development tasks such as new features, scaling or automation. The ideal site reliability engineer candidate is either a software engineer with a good administration background or a highly skilled system administrator with knowledge of coding and automation.[3]

DevOps vs SRE

Main article: DevOps

Coined around 2008, DevOps is a philosophy of cross-team empathy and business alignment. It’s also been associated with a practice that encompasses automation of manual tasks, continuous integration and continuous delivery. SRE and DevOps share the same foundational principles. SRE is viewed by many (as cited in the Google SRE book) as a “specific implementation of DevOps with some idiosyncratic extensions”. SREs, being developers themselves, will naturally bring solutions that help remove the barriers between development teams and operations teams.

DevOps defines five key pillars of success:

  1. Reduce organizational silos
  2. Accept failure as normal
  3. Implement gradual changes
  4. Leverage tooling and automation
  5. Measure everything

SRE satisfies the DevOps pillars as follows:[4]

  1. Reduce organizational silos
    • SRE shares ownership with developers to create shared responsibility[5]
    • SREs use the same tools that developers use, and vice versa
  2. Accept failure as normal
  3. Implement gradual changes
    • SRE encourages developers and product owners to move quickly by reducing the cost of failure[6]
  4. Leverage tooling and automation
    • SREs have a charter to automate manual tasks (called “toil”) away[9]
  5. Measure everything
    • SRE defines prescriptive ways to measure values[10]
    • SRE fundamentally believes that systems operation is a software problem

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System Administrator SysAdmin

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system administrator, or sysadmin, is a person who is responsible for the upkeep, configuration, and reliable operation of computer systems; especially multi-user computers, such as servers. The system administrator seeks to ensure that the uptimeperformanceresources, and security of the computers they manage meet the needs of the users, without exceeding a set budget when doing so.

To meet these needs, a system administrator may acquire, install, or upgrade computer components and software; provide routine automation; maintain security policies; troubleshoot; train or supervise staff; or offer technical support for projects.

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Network Administrator NetAdmin

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network administrator is the person designated in an organization whose responsibility includes maintaining computer infrastructures with emphasis on networking. Responsibilities may vary between organizations, but on-site servers, software-network interactions as well as network integrity/resilience are the key areas of focus.

Duties

The role of the network administrator can vary significantly depending on an organization’s size, location, and socio-economic considerations. Some organizations work on a user-to-technical support ratio,[1][2] whilst others implement many other strategies.

Generally, in terms of reactive situations (i.e.: unexpected disruptions to service, or service improvements), IT Support Incidents are raised through an Issue tracking system. Typically, issues work their way through a Help desk and then flow through to the relevant technology area for resolution. In the case of a network related issue, an issue will be directed towards a network administrator. If a network administrator is unable to resolve an issue, a ticket will be escalated to a more senior network engineer for a restoration of service or a more appropriate skill group.

Network administrators are often involved in proactive work. This type of work will often include:

  • network monitoring.
  • testing the network for weakness.
  • keeping an eye out for needed updates.
  • installing and implementing security programs.
  • in many cases, E-mail and Internet filters.
  • evaluating implementing network.

Network administrators are responsible for making sure that computer hardware and network infrastructure related to an organization’s data network are effectively maintained. In smaller organizations, they are typically involved in the procurement of new hardware, the rollout of new software, maintaining disk images for new computer installs, making sure that licenses are paid for and up to date for software that needs it, maintaining the standards for server installations and applications, monitoring the performance of the network, checking for security breaches, and poor data management practices. A common question for the small-medium business (SMB) network administrator is, how much bandwidth do I need to run my business?[3] Typically, within a larger organization, these roles are split into multiple roles or functions across various divisions and are not actioned by the one individual. In other organizations, some of these roles mentioned are carried out by system administrators.

As with many technical roles, network administrator positions require a breadth of technical knowledge and the ability to learn the intricacies of new networking and server software packages quickly. Within smaller organizations, the more senior role of network engineer is sometimes attached to the responsibilities of the network administrator. It is common for smaller organizations to outsource this function.[4]

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DHCP Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol

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The Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol (DHCP) is a network management protocol used on Internet Protocol (IP) networks, whereby a DHCP server dynamically assigns an IP address and other network configuration parameters to each device on the network, so they can communicate with other IP networks.[1] A DHCP server enables computers to request IP addresses and networking parameters automatically from the Internet service provider (ISP), reducing the need for a network administrator or a user to manually assign IP addresses to all network devices.[1] In the absence of a DHCP server, a computer or other device on the network needs to be manually assigned an IP address, or to assign itself an APIPA address, the latter of which will not enable it to communicate outside its local subnet.

DHCP can be implemented on networks ranging in size from home networks to large campus networks and regional ISP networks.[2] A router or a residential gateway can be enabled to act as a DHCP server. Most residential network routers receive a globally unique IP address within the ISP network. Within a local network, a DHCP server assigns a local IP address to each device connected to the network.

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Networking Hardware / Device

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Networking hardware, also known as network equipment or computer networking devices, are electronic devices which are required for communication and interaction between devices on a computer network. Specifically, they mediate data transmission in a computer network.[1] Units which are the last receiver or generate data are called hostsend systems or data terminal equipment.

Range

Networking devices includes a broad range of equipment which can be classified as core network components which interconnect other network components, hybrid components which can be found in the core or border of a network and hardware or software components which typically sit on the connection point of different networks.

The most common kind of networking hardware today is a copper-based Ethernet adapter which is a standard inclusion on most modern computer systems. Wireless networking has become increasingly popular, especially for portable and handheld devices.

Other networking hardware used in computers includes data center equipment (such as file serversdatabase servers and storage areas), network services (such as DNSDHCPemail, etc.) as well as devices which assure content delivery.

Taking a wider view, mobile phonestablet computers and devices associated with the internet of things may also be considered networking hardware. As technology advances and IP-based networks are integrated into building infrastructure and household utilities, network hardware will become an ambiguous term owing to the vastly increasing number of network capable endpoints.

Specific devices

Network hardware can be classified by its location and role in the network.

Core

Core network components interconnect other network components.

  • Gateway: an interface providing a compatibility between networks by converting transmission speeds, protocols, codes, or security measures.[2]
  • Router: a networking device that forwards data packets between computer networks. Routers perform the “traffic directing” functions on the Internet. A data packet is typically forwarded from one router to another through the networks that constitute the internetwork until it reaches its destination node.[3] It works on OSI layer 3.[4]
  • Switch: a device that connects devices together on a computer network, by using packet switching to receive, process and forward data to the destination device. Unlike less advanced network hubs, a network switch forwards data only to one or multiple devices that need to receive it, rather than broadcasting the same data out of each of its ports.[5] It works on OSI layer 2.
  • Bridge: a device that connects multiple network segments. It works on OSI layers 1 and 2.[6]
  • Repeater: an electronic device that receives a signal and retransmits it at a higher level or higher power, or onto the other side of an obstruction, so that the signal can cover longer distances.[7]
  • Repeater hub: for connecting multiple Ethernet devices together and making them act as a single network segment. It has multiple input/output (I/O) ports, in which a signal introduced at the input of any port appears at the output of every port except the original incoming.[1] A hub works at the physical layer (layer 1) of the OSI model.[8] Repeater hubs also participate in collision detection, forwarding a jam signal to all ports if it detects a collision. Hubs are now largely obsolete, having been replaced by network switches except in very old installations or specialized applications.
  • Wireless access point
  • Structured cabling

Hybrid

Hybrid components can be found in the core or border of a network.

  • Multilayer switch: a switch that, in addition to switching on OSI layer 2, provides functionality at higher protocol layers.
  • Protocol converter: a hardware device that converts between two different types of transmission, for interoperation.[9]
  • Bridge router (brouter): a device that works as a bridge and as a router. The brouter routes packets for known protocols and simply forwards all other packets as a bridge would.[10]

Border

Hardware or software components which typically sit on the connection point of different networks (for example, between an internal network and an external network) include:

  • Proxy server: computer network service which allows clients to make indirect network connections to other network services.[11]
  • Firewall: a piece of hardware or software put on the network to prevent some communications forbidden by the network policy.[12] A firewall typically establishes a barrier between a trusted, secure internal network and another outside network, such as the Internet, that is assumed to not be secure or trusted.[13]
  • Network address translator (NAT): network service (provided as hardware or as software) that converts internal to external network addresses and vice versa.[14]

End stations

Other hardware devices used for establishing networks or dial-up connections include:

  • Network interface controller (NIC): a device connecting a computer to a wire-based computer network.
  • Wireless network interface controller: a device connecting the attached computer to a radio-based computer network.
  • Modem: device that modulates an analog “carrier” signal (such as sound) to encode digital information, and that also demodulates such a carrier signal to decode the transmitted information. Used (for example) when a computer communicates with another computer over a telephone network.
  • ISDN terminal adapter (TA): a specialized gateway for ISDN.
  • Line driver: a device to increase transmission distance by amplifying the signal; used in base-band networks only.

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ICMP Internet Control Message Protocol

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The Internet Control Message Protocol (ICMP) is a supporting protocol in the Internet protocol suite. It is used by network devices, including routers, to send error messages and operational information indicating success or failure when communicating with another IP address, for example, an error is indicated when a requested service is not available or that a host or router could not be reached.[2] ICMP differs from transport protocols such as TCP and UDP in that it is not typically used to exchange data between systems, nor is it regularly employed by end-user network applications (with the exception of some diagnostic tools like ping and traceroute).

ICMP for IPv4 is defined in RFC 792.

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UDP User Datagram Protocol

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In computer networking, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core members of the Internet protocol suite. The protocol was designed by David P. Reed in 1980 and formally defined in RFC 768. With UDP, computer applications can send messages, in this case referred to as datagrams, to other hosts on an Internet Protocol (IP) network. Prior communications are not required in order to set up communication channels or data paths.

UDP uses a simple connectionless communication model with a minimum of protocol mechanisms. UDP provides checksums for data integrity, and port numbers for addressing different functions at the source and destination of the datagram. It has no handshaking dialogues, and thus exposes the user’s program to any unreliability of the underlying network; there is no guarantee of delivery, ordering, or duplicate protection. If error-correction facilities are needed at the network interface level, an application may use Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) or Stream Control Transmission Protocol (SCTP) which are designed for this purpose.

UDP is suitable for purposes where error checking and correction are either not necessary or are performed in the application; UDP avoids the overhead of such processing in the protocol stack. Time-sensitive applications often use UDP because dropping packets is preferable to waiting for packets delayed due to retransmission, which may not be an option in a real-time system.[1]

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IP Internet Protocol

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The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.

IP has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. For this purpose, IP defines packet structures that encapsulate the data to be delivered. It also defines addressing methods that are used to label the datagram with source and destination information.

Historically, IP was the connectionless datagram service in the original Transmission Control Program introduced by Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn in 1974, which was complemented by a connection-oriented service that became the basis for the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). The Internet protocol suite is therefore often referred to as TCP/IP.

The first major version of IP, Internet Protocol Version 4 (IPv4), is the dominant protocol of the Internet. Its successor is Internet Protocol Version 6 (IPv6), which has been in increasing deployment on the public Internet since c. 2006.

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TCP Transmission Control Protocol

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The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the main protocols of the Internet protocol suite. It originated in the initial network implementation in which it complemented the Internet Protocol (IP). Therefore, the entire suite is commonly referred to as TCP/IP. TCP provides reliable, ordered, and error-checked delivery of a stream of octets (bytes) between applications running on hosts communicating via an IP network. Major internet applications such as the World Wide Webemailremote administration, and file transfer rely on TCP, which is part of the Transport Layer of the TCP/IP suite. SSL/TLS often runs on top of TCP.

TCP is connection-oriented, and a connection between client and server is established before data can be sent. The server must be listening (passive open) for connection requests from clients before a connection is established. Three-way handshake (active open), retransmission, and error-detection adds to reliability but lengthens latency. Applications that do not require reliable data stream service may use the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), which provides a connectionless datagram service that prioritizes time over reliability. TCP employs network congestion avoidance. However, there are vulnerabilities to TCP including denial of serviceconnection hijacking, TCP veto, and reset attack. For network security, monitoring, and debugging, TCP traffic can be intercepted and logged with a packet sniffer.

Though TCP is a complex protocol, its basic operation has not changed significantly since its first specification. TCP is still dominantly used for the web, i.e. for the HTTP protocol, and later HTTP/2, while not used by latest standard HTTP/3.

Historical origin

In May 1974, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn described an internetworking protocol for sharing resources using packet switching among network nodes.[1] The authors had been working with Gérard Le Lann to incorporate concepts from the French CYCLADES project into the new network.[2] The specification of the resulting protocol, RFC 675 (Specification of Internet Transmission Control Program), was written by Vint Cerf, Yogen Dalal, and Carl Sunshine, and published in December 1974. It contains the first attested use of the term Internet, as a shorthand for internetworking.[3]

A central control component of this model was the Transmission Control Program that incorporated both connection-oriented links and datagram services between hosts. The monolithic Transmission Control Program was later divided into a modular architecture consisting of the Transmission Control Protocol and the Internet Protocol. This resulted in a networking model that became known informally as TCP/IP, although formally it was variously referred to as the Department of Defense (DOD) model, and ARPANET model, and eventually also as the Internet Protocol Suite.

In 2004, Vint Cerf and Bob Kahn received the Turing Award for their foundational work on TCP/IP.[4][5]

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Internet Protocol Suite – IPStack

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The Internet protocol suite is the conceptual model and set of communications protocols used in the Internet and similar computer networks. It is commonly known as TCP/IP because the foundational protocols in the suite are the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) and the Internet Protocol (IP). During its development, versions of it were known as the Department of Defense (DoDmodel because the development of the networking method was funded by the United States Department of Defense through DARPA. Its implementation is a protocol stack.

The Internet protocol suite provides end-to-end data communication specifying how data should be packetized, addressed, transmitted, routed, and received. This functionality is organized into four abstraction layers, which classify all related protocols according to the scope of networking involved.[1][2] From lowest to highest, the layers are the link layer, containing communication methods for data that remains within a single network segment (link); the internet layer, providing internetworking between independent networks; the transport layer, handling host-to-host communication; and the application layer, providing process-to-process data exchange for applications.

The technical standards underlying the Internet protocol suite and its constituent protocols are maintained by the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF). The Internet protocol suite predates the OSI model, a more comprehensive reference framework for general networking systems.

History

Early research

Diagram of the first internetworked connectionAn SRI InternationalPacket Radio Van, used for the first three-way internetworked transmission.

The Internet protocol suite resulted from research and development conducted by the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) in the late 1960s.[3] After initiating the pioneering ARPANET in 1969, DARPA started work on a number of other data transmission technologies. In 1972, Robert E. Kahn joined the DARPA Information Processing Technology Office, where he worked on both satellite packet networks and ground-based radio packet networks, and recognized the value of being able to communicate across both. In the spring of 1973, Vinton Cerf, who helped develop the existing ARPANET Network Control Program (NCP) protocol, joined Kahn to work on open-architecture interconnection models with the goal of designing the next protocol generation for the ARPANET.[citation needed] They drew on the experience from the ARPANET research community and the International Networking Working Group, which Cerf chaired.[4]

By the summer of 1973, Kahn and Cerf had worked out a fundamental reformulation, in which the differences between local network protocols were hidden by using a common internetwork protocol, and, instead of the network being responsible for reliability, as in the existing ARPANET protocols, this function was delegated to the hosts. Cerf credits Hubert Zimmermann and Louis Pouzin, designer of the CYCLADES network, with important influences on this design.[5][6] The new protocol was implemented as the Transmission Control Program in 1974.[7]

Initially, the Transmission Control Program managed both datagram transmissions and routing, but as experience with the protocol grew, collaborators recommended division of functionality into layers of distinct protocols. Advocates included Jonathan Postel of the University of Southern California’s Information Sciences Institute, who edited the Request for Comments (RFCs), the technical and strategic document series that has both documented and catalyzed Internet development,[8] and the research group of Robert Metcalfe at Xerox PARC.[9][10] Postel stated, “We are screwing up in our design of Internet protocols by violating the principle of layering.”[11] Encapsulation of different mechanisms was intended to create an environment where the upper layers could access only what was needed from the lower layers. A monolithic design would be inflexible and lead to scalability issues. In version 3 of TCP, written in 1978, the Transmission Control Program was split into two distinct protocols, the Internet Protocol as connectionless layer and the Transmission Control Protocol as a reliable connection-oriented service.[12]

The design of the network included the recognition that it should provide only the functions of efficiently transmitting and routing traffic between end nodes and that all other intelligence should be located at the edge of the network, in the end nodes. This design is known as the end-to-end principle. Using this design, it became possible to connect other networks to the ARPANET that used the same principle, irrespective of other local characteristics, thereby solving Kahn’s initial internetworking problem. A popular expression is that TCP/IP, the eventual product of Cerf and Kahn’s work, can run over “two tin cans and a string.”[citation needed] Years later, as a joke, the IP over Avian Carriers formal protocol specification was created and successfully tested.

DARPA contracted with BBN TechnologiesStanford University, and the University College London to develop operational versions of the protocol on several hardware platforms.[13] During development of the protocol the version number of the packet routing layer progressed from version 1 to version 4, the latter of which was installed in the ARPANET in 1983. It became known as Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) as the protocol that is still in use in the Internet, alongside its current successor, Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6).

Early implementation

In 1975, a two-network TCP/IP communications test was performed between Stanford and University College London. In November 1977, a three-network TCP/IP test was conducted between sites in the US, the UK, and Norway. Several other TCP/IP prototypes were developed at multiple research centers between 1978 and 1983.

A computer called a router is provided with an interface to each network. It forwards network packets back and forth between them.[14] Originally a router was called gateway, but the term was changed to avoid confusion with other types of gateways.[15]

Adoption

In March 1982, the US Department of Defense declared TCP/IP as the standard for all military computer networking.[16] In the same year, NORSAR and Peter Kirstein‘s research group at University College London adopted the protocol.[13][17][18] The migration of the ARPANET to TCP/IP was officially completed on flag day January 1, 1983, when the new protocols were permanently activated.[19]

In 1985, the Internet Advisory Board (later Internet Architecture Board) held a three-day TCP/IP workshop for the computer industry, attended by 250 vendor representatives, promoting the protocol and leading to its increasing commercial use. In 1985, the first Interop conference focused on network interoperability by broader adoption of TCP/IP. The conference was founded by Dan Lynch, an early Internet activist. From the beginning, large corporations, such as IBM and DEC, attended the meeting.[20]

IBM, AT&T and DEC were the first major corporations to adopt TCP/IP, this despite having competing proprietary protocols. In IBM, from 1984, Barry Appelman‘s group did TCP/IP development. They navigated the corporate politics to get a stream of TCP/IP products for various IBM systems, including MVSVM, and OS/2. At the same time, several smaller companies, such as FTP Software and the Wollongong Group, began offering TCP/IP stacks for DOS and Microsoft Windows.[21] The first VM/CMS TCP/IP stack came from the University of Wisconsin.[22]

Some of the early TCP/IP stacks were written single-handedly by a few programmers. Jay Elinsky and Oleg Vishnepolsky [ru] of IBM Research wrote TCP/IP stacks for VM/CMS and OS/2, respectively.[citation needed] In 1984 Donald Gillies at MIT wrote a ntcp multi-connection TCP which ran atop the IP/PacketDriver layer maintained by John Romkey at MIT in 1983–4. Romkey leveraged this TCP in 1986 when FTP Software was founded.[23][24] Starting in 1985, Phil Karn created a multi-connection TCP application for ham radio systems (KA9Q TCP).[25]

The spread of TCP/IP was fueled further in June 1989, when the University of California, Berkeley agreed to place the TCP/IP code developed for BSD UNIX into the public domain. Various corporate vendors, including IBM, included this code in commercial TCP/IP software releases. Microsoft released a native TCP/IP stack in Windows 95. This event helped cement TCP/IP’s dominance over other protocols on Microsoft-based networks, which included IBM’s Systems Network Architecture (SNA), and on other platforms such as Digital Equipment Corporation‘s DECnetOpen Systems Interconnection (OSI), and Xerox Network Systems (XNS).

Nonetheless, for a period in the late 1980s and early 1990s, engineers, organizations and nations were polarized over the issue of which standard, the OSI model or the Internet protocol suite would result in the best and most robust computer networks.[26][27][28]

Formal specification and standards

The technical standards underlying the Internet protocol suite and its constituent protocols have been delegated to the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF).

The characteristic architecture of the Internet Protocol Suite is its broad division into operating scopes for the protocols that constitute its core functionality. The defining specification of the suite is RFC 1122, which broadly outlines four abstraction layers.[1] These have stood the test of time, as the IETF has never modified this structure. As such a model of networking, the Internet Protocol Suite predates the OSI model, a more comprehensive reference framework for general networking systems.

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