Bibliography JavaScript Software Engineering

MDN JavaScript Reference Mozilla Developer Network – MDN Web Docs

See also: JavaScript Reference Materials, JavaScript, JavaScript Bibliography and Bibliography of JavaScript Libraries and Web Frameworks

MDN JavaScript Reference Mozilla Developer Network (MDNJsR)

MDN Web Docs.svg
Type of siteWiki
Available inEnglish
Other locales are unmaintained as of December 14, 2020[1]
RegistrationOptional, required to edit content
Launched2005; 16 years ago
Current statusOnline
Content licenseCC-BY-SA v2.5+ et al.
Written inReact

MDN Web Docs, previously Mozilla Developer Network and formerly Mozilla Developer Center, is a documentation repository and learning resource for web developers used by MozillaMicrosoftGoogle, and Samsung. The project was started by Mozilla in 2005[2] as a unified place for documentation about open web standards, Mozilla’s own projects, and developer guides.[3] In 2017, Microsoft, Google, and Samsung announced that they would shut down their own documentation projects and move all their documentation to MDN Web Docs.[4]

MDN Web Docs content is maintained by Mozilla and Google employees and volunteers (community of developers and technical writers). Topics include HTML5JavaScriptCSSWeb APIsDjangoNode.jsWebExtensionsMathML, and others.[5]

MDN JavaScript Reference Mozilla Developer Network (MDNJsR)


In 2005, Mozilla Corporation started the project under the name Mozilla Developer Center.[2] Mozilla Corporation still funds servers and employs staff working on the projects.

The initial content for the website was provided by DevEdge, for which the Mozilla Foundation was granted a license by AOL.[6][2] The site now contains a mix of content migrated from DevEdge and, as well as original and more up-to-date content.[7][8] Documentation was also migrated from

On Oct 3, 2016, Brave browser added Mozilla Developer Network as one of its default search engines options.[9]

In 2017, MDN Web Docs became the unified documentation of web technology for Google, Samsung, Microsoft, and Mozilla.[10][4] Microsoft started redirecting pages from MSDN to MDN.[11]

In 2019, Mozilla started Beta testing a new reader site for MDN Web Docs written in React (instead of jQuery; some jQuery functionality was replaced with Cheerio library).[12] The new site was launched on December 14, 2020.[13] Since December 14, 2020, all editable content is stored in a git repository hosted on GitHub, where contributors open pull requests and discuss changes.[1]

On January 25 2021,[14] Open Web Docs organization was launched as a non-profit fiscal entity to collect funds for MDN development.[15] As of February 2021, OWD top financial contributors are MicrosoftGoogle, Coil, and Igalia.[16]

See also


  1. a b “An update on MDN Web Docs’ localization strategy – Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog”Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  2. a b c Mitchell Baker (2005-02-23). “DevMo and DevEdge updates”. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
  3. ^ Willison, Simon (2005-09-15). “The Mozilla Developer Center”SitePoint. Retrieved 2012-08-19.
  4. a b Tung, Liam (2017-10-19). “Developers rejoice: Microsoft, Google, Mozilla are putting all their web API docs in one place”ZDNet.
  5. ^ Ten Things Developers should know about the Mozilla Developer Network (MDN)
  6. ^ “About”. Mozilla Developer Center. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
  7. ^ “DevEdge”. Mozilla Developer Center. Archived from the originalon 2007-10-26. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
  8. ^ Deb Richardson (2006-02-10). “Digging through the DevEdge archives” Google Groups. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
  9. ^ “Brave Browser 0.12.3 Release Note”Github. Retrieved 16 August2017.
  10. ^ Knox, Dru (2017-10-18). “Building unified documentation for the web”Chromium Blog.
  11. ^ Erika Doyle Navara (2017-10-18). “Documenting the Web together”Windows Blogs.
  12. ^ R, Bhagyashree (2019-07-17). “Mozilla’s MDN Web Docs gets new React-powered frontend, which is now in Beta”Packt Hub. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
  13. ^ “Welcome Yari: MDN Web Docs has a new platform – Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog”Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  14. ^ “OWD Steering Committee call, 2021-01-20”GitHub. 2021-01-20. Archived from the original on 2021-02-01. Retrieved 2021-02-01. OWD will go public on Monday, January 25th.
  15. ^ “Welcoming Open Web Docs to the MDN family – Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog”Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  16. ^ “Open Web Docs – Open Collective” Retrieved 2021-02-01


JavaScript Reference

This part of the JavaScript section on MDN serves as a repository of facts about the JavaScript language.

About the JavaScript reference

The JavaScript reference serves as a repository of facts about the JavaScript language. The entire language is described here in detail. As you write JavaScript code, you’ll refer to these pages often (thus the title “JavaScript reference”). If you’re learning JavaScript, or need help understanding some of its capabilities or features, check out the JavaScript guide.

The JavaScript language is intended to be used within some larger environment, be it a browser, server-side scripts, or similar. For the most part, this reference attempts to be environment-agnostic and does not target a web browser environment.

Where to find JavaScript information

JavaScript documentation of core language features (pure ECMAScript, for the most part) includes the following:

If you are new to JavaScript, start with the guide. Once you have a firm grasp of the fundamentals, you can use the reference to get more details on individual objects and language constructs.

Structure of the reference

In the JavaScript reference you can find the following chapters:Standard built-in objectsThis chapter documents all the JavaScript standard built-in objects, along with their methods and properties.Statements and declarationsJavaScript applications consist of statements with an appropriate syntax. A single statement may span multiple lines. Multiple statements may occur on a single line if each statement is separated by a semicolon. This isn’t a keyword, but a group of keywords.Expressions and operatorsThis chapter documents all the JavaScript language operators, expressions and keywords.FunctionsChapter about JavaScript functions.ClassesChapter about JavaScript classes introduced in ECMAScript 2015.ErrorsChapter about specific errors, exceptions and warnings thrown by JavaScript.New in JavaScriptChapter about JavaScript version history.

More reference pages

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JavaScript standard built-in objects, along with their methods and properties.

Value properties

Function properties

Fundamental objects

Error objects

Numbers & dates

Text processing

Indexed Collections

Keyed collections

Structured data

Control abstraction





JavaScript statements and declarations

Control flow


Functions and classes



Expressions and operators

JavaScript expressions and operators

Primary expressions

Left-hand-side expressions

Increment & decrement

Unary operators

Arithmetic operators

Relational operators

Equality operators

Bitwise shift operators

Binary bitwise operators

Binary logical operators

Conditional (ternary) operator

Assignment operators


This chapter documents how to work with JavaScript functions to develop your applications.

Additional reference pages


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History Software Engineering

Rust Programming Language Invented by Graydon Hoare of Mozilla – 2010 AD

Return to Timeline of the History of Computers

Graydon Hoare started development of the Rust programming language around 2010. After contributions from hundreds of people, it was officially released as version 1.0.0 alpha by Mozilla research on January 9, 2015.

Rust is a multi-paradigm programming language designed for performance and safety, especially safe concurrency.[16][17] Rust is syntactically similar to C++,[18] but can guarantee memory safety by using a borrow checker to validate references.[19] Rust achieves memory safety without garbage collection, and reference counting is optional.[20][21]

Rust was originally designed by Graydon Hoare at Mozilla Research, with contributions from Dave Herman, Brendan Eich, and others.[22][23] The designers refined the language while writing the Servo layout or browser engine,[24] and the Rust compiler. It has gained increasing use in industry, and Microsoft has been experimenting with the language for secure and safety-critical software components.[25][26]

Rust has been voted the “most loved programming language” in the Stack Overflow Developer Survey every year since 2016.[27]

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