Bibliography JavaScript Software Engineering

MDN JavaScript Reference Mozilla Developer Network – MDN Web Docs

See also: JavaScript Reference Materials, JavaScript, JavaScript Bibliography and Bibliography of JavaScript Libraries and Web Frameworks

MDN JavaScript Reference Mozilla Developer Network (MDNJsR)

MDN Web Docs.svg
Type of siteWiki
Available inEnglish
Other locales are unmaintained as of December 14, 2020[1]
RegistrationOptional, required to edit content
Launched2005; 16 years ago
Current statusOnline
Content licenseCC-BY-SA v2.5+ et al.
Written inReact

MDN Web Docs, previously Mozilla Developer Network and formerly Mozilla Developer Center, is a documentation repository and learning resource for web developers used by MozillaMicrosoftGoogle, and Samsung. The project was started by Mozilla in 2005[2] as a unified place for documentation about open web standards, Mozilla’s own projects, and developer guides.[3] In 2017, Microsoft, Google, and Samsung announced that they would shut down their own documentation projects and move all their documentation to MDN Web Docs.[4]

MDN Web Docs content is maintained by Mozilla and Google employees and volunteers (community of developers and technical writers). Topics include HTML5JavaScriptCSSWeb APIsDjangoNode.jsWebExtensionsMathML, and others.[5]

MDN JavaScript Reference Mozilla Developer Network (MDNJsR)


In 2005, Mozilla Corporation started the project under the name Mozilla Developer Center.[2] Mozilla Corporation still funds servers and employs staff working on the projects.

The initial content for the website was provided by DevEdge, for which the Mozilla Foundation was granted a license by AOL.[6][2] The site now contains a mix of content migrated from DevEdge and, as well as original and more up-to-date content.[7][8] Documentation was also migrated from

On Oct 3, 2016, Brave browser added Mozilla Developer Network as one of its default search engines options.[9]

In 2017, MDN Web Docs became the unified documentation of web technology for Google, Samsung, Microsoft, and Mozilla.[10][4] Microsoft started redirecting pages from MSDN to MDN.[11]

In 2019, Mozilla started Beta testing a new reader site for MDN Web Docs written in React (instead of jQuery; some jQuery functionality was replaced with Cheerio library).[12] The new site was launched on December 14, 2020.[13] Since December 14, 2020, all editable content is stored in a git repository hosted on GitHub, where contributors open pull requests and discuss changes.[1]

On January 25 2021,[14] Open Web Docs organization was launched as a non-profit fiscal entity to collect funds for MDN development.[15] As of February 2021, OWD top financial contributors are MicrosoftGoogle, Coil, and Igalia.[16]

See also


  1. a b “An update on MDN Web Docs’ localization strategy – Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog”Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  2. a b c Mitchell Baker (2005-02-23). “DevMo and DevEdge updates”. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
  3. ^ Willison, Simon (2005-09-15). “The Mozilla Developer Center”SitePoint. Retrieved 2012-08-19.
  4. a b Tung, Liam (2017-10-19). “Developers rejoice: Microsoft, Google, Mozilla are putting all their web API docs in one place”ZDNet.
  5. ^ Ten Things Developers should know about the Mozilla Developer Network (MDN)
  6. ^ “About”. Mozilla Developer Center. Archived from the original on 2007-10-20. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
  7. ^ “DevEdge”. Mozilla Developer Center. Archived from the originalon 2007-10-26. Retrieved 2009-01-30.
  8. ^ Deb Richardson (2006-02-10). “Digging through the DevEdge archives” Google Groups. Retrieved 2008-05-31.
  9. ^ “Brave Browser 0.12.3 Release Note”Github. Retrieved 16 August2017.
  10. ^ Knox, Dru (2017-10-18). “Building unified documentation for the web”Chromium Blog.
  11. ^ Erika Doyle Navara (2017-10-18). “Documenting the Web together”Windows Blogs.
  12. ^ R, Bhagyashree (2019-07-17). “Mozilla’s MDN Web Docs gets new React-powered frontend, which is now in Beta”Packt Hub. Retrieved 2019-07-18.
  13. ^ “Welcome Yari: MDN Web Docs has a new platform – Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog”Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  14. ^ “OWD Steering Committee call, 2021-01-20”GitHub. 2021-01-20. Archived from the original on 2021-02-01. Retrieved 2021-02-01. OWD will go public on Monday, January 25th.
  15. ^ “Welcoming Open Web Docs to the MDN family – Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog”Mozilla Hacks – the Web developer blog. Retrieved 2021-02-01.
  16. ^ “Open Web Docs – Open Collective” Retrieved 2021-02-01


JavaScript Reference

This part of the JavaScript section on MDN serves as a repository of facts about the JavaScript language.

About the JavaScript reference

The JavaScript reference serves as a repository of facts about the JavaScript language. The entire language is described here in detail. As you write JavaScript code, you’ll refer to these pages often (thus the title “JavaScript reference”). If you’re learning JavaScript, or need help understanding some of its capabilities or features, check out the JavaScript guide.

The JavaScript language is intended to be used within some larger environment, be it a browser, server-side scripts, or similar. For the most part, this reference attempts to be environment-agnostic and does not target a web browser environment.

Where to find JavaScript information

JavaScript documentation of core language features (pure ECMAScript, for the most part) includes the following:

If you are new to JavaScript, start with the guide. Once you have a firm grasp of the fundamentals, you can use the reference to get more details on individual objects and language constructs.

Structure of the reference

In the JavaScript reference you can find the following chapters:Standard built-in objectsThis chapter documents all the JavaScript standard built-in objects, along with their methods and properties.Statements and declarationsJavaScript applications consist of statements with an appropriate syntax. A single statement may span multiple lines. Multiple statements may occur on a single line if each statement is separated by a semicolon. This isn’t a keyword, but a group of keywords.Expressions and operatorsThis chapter documents all the JavaScript language operators, expressions and keywords.FunctionsChapter about JavaScript functions.ClassesChapter about JavaScript classes introduced in ECMAScript 2015.ErrorsChapter about specific errors, exceptions and warnings thrown by JavaScript.New in JavaScriptChapter about JavaScript version history.

More reference pages

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JavaScript standard built-in objects, along with their methods and properties.

Value properties

Function properties

Fundamental objects

Error objects

Numbers & dates

Text processing

Indexed Collections

Keyed collections

Structured data

Control abstraction





JavaScript statements and declarations

Control flow


Functions and classes



Expressions and operators

JavaScript expressions and operators

Primary expressions

Left-hand-side expressions

Increment & decrement

Unary operators

Arithmetic operators

Relational operators

Equality operators

Bitwise shift operators

Binary bitwise operators

Binary logical operators

Conditional (ternary) operator

Assignment operators


This chapter documents how to work with JavaScript functions to develop your applications.

Additional reference pages


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JavaScript Software Engineering

Angular web application framework – TypeScript-based

See also: JavaScript, JavaScript Bibliography and Bibliography of JavaScript Libraries and Web Frameworks

Angular full color logo.svg
Initial release2.0 / 14 September 2016; 4 years ago[1]
Stable release11.2.3[2]  / 24 February 2021; 7 days ago
Preview release12.0.0-next.2 / 24 February 2021; 7 days ago[3]
RepositoryAngular Repository
Written inTypeScript
PlatformWeb platform
TypeWeb framework
LicenseMIT License

Angular (commonly referred to as “Angular 2+” or “Angular v2 and above“)[4][5] is a TypeScript-based open-source web application framework led by the Angular Team at Google and by a community of individuals and corporations. Angular is a complete rewrite from the same team that built AngularJS.” (WP)

See also

External links



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JavaScript Software Engineering

React JavaScript library

See also: JavaScript, JavaScript Bibliography and Bibliography of JavaScript Libraries and Web Frameworks

Original author(s)Jordan Walke
Developer(s)Facebook and community
Initial releaseMay 29, 2013; 7 years ago[1]
Stable release17.0.1[2]  / 22 October 2020; 4 months ago
Written inJavaScript
PlatformWeb platform
TypeJavaScript library
LicenseMIT License 

React (also known as React.js or ReactJS) is an open-sourcefront endJavaScript library[3] for building user interfaces or UI components. It is maintained by Facebook and a community of individual developers and companies.[4][5][6] React can be used as a base in the development of single-page or mobile applications. However, React is only concerned with state management and rendering that state to the DOM, so creating React applications usually requires the use of additional libraries for routing.[7][8] React Router[9] is an example of such a library.” (WP)



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Angular Framework Bibliography JavaScript React Software Engineering Vue.js Framework

Bibliography of JavaScript Libraries and Web Frameworks

See also: React.js Bibliography, JavaScript, JavaScript Bibliography, JavaScript Reference Materials

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History JavaScript Software Engineering

Node.js JavaScript Runtime Environment Invented by Ryan Dahl – 2009 AD

Return to Timeline of the History of Computers

Node.js logo.svg

Recommended Book: See: Get Programming with Node.js, 1st Edition, by Jonathan Wexler, 2019, 1617294748 (GtPgNjs)

Node.js is an open-sourcecross-platformback-end JavaScript runtime environment that runs on the V8 engine and executes JavaScript code outside a web browser. Node.js lets developers use JavaScript to write command line tools and for server-side scripting—running scripts server-side to produce dynamic web page content before the page is sent to the user’s web browser. Consequently, Node.js represents a “JavaScript everywhere” paradigm,[6] unifying web-application development around a single programming language, rather than different languages for server-side and client-side scripts.

Though .js is the standard filename extension for JavaScript code, the name “Node.js” doesn’t refer to a particular file in this context and is merely the name of the product. Node.js has an event-driven architecture capable of asynchronous I/O. These design choices aim to optimize throughput and scalability in web applications with many input/output operations, as well as for real-time Web applications (e.g., real-time communication programs and browser games).[7]

The Node.js distributed development project was previously governed by the Node.js Foundation,[8] and has now merged with the JS Foundation to form the OpenJS Foundation, which is facilitated by the Linux Foundation‘s Collaborative Projects program.[9]

Corporate users of Node.js software include GoDaddy,[10] Groupon,[11] IBM,[12] LinkedIn,[13][14] Microsoft,[15][16] Netflix,[17] PayPal,[18][19] RakutenSAP,[20] Voxer,[21] Walmart,[22] Yahoo!,[23] and Amazon Web Services.[24]


“I was fortunate enough to be among a crowd of about 250 folks who gathered at the first JSConf.EU conference in Berlin in late 2009, when a relatively unknown-at-the-time speaker stood up and introduced himself as Ryan Dahl. Over the next hour, he proceeded to deliver a simple, no-frills talk with dry humor and little affect—not exactly the kind of talk you’d expect to receive a rousing audience response.” (GtPgNjs)

“But we all jumped to our feet and gave him a standing ovation, for multiple minutes. Why? Dahl had just changed the game for all JavaScript developers, and we knew it. He officially launched Node.js to the world. Nothing in JS would ever be the same again.” (GtPgNjs)

“In the eight or so years since, Node.js has skyrocketed to practical ubiquity, not only within the JavaScript world, but also far beyond. Node.js represents a powerful, respected, first-class, enterprise server-side platform for global-scale web applications. It sparked an explosion of interest in embedding JS in practically any computing or electronic device you can imagine, from robots to television sets to light bulbs.” (GtPgNjs)

“The Node.js ecosystem is built around hundreds of thousands of published module packages in npm—the largest code repository ever for any programming language by more than 6 times. That statistic doesn’t include the countless privately installed packages comprising billions of lines of JavaScript.” (GtPgNjs)

“With the enormous momentum around and attention to Node.js, it can be painfully daunting for someone who wants to learn this ecosystem to figure out where to start.” (GtPgNjs)




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