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History

This Year in History

Know your History, It repeats itself! See also Timeline of the History of Computers and This Year in History

History in the year of:

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Java Software Engineering

CodeRanch.com

See also Java Programming Language, Java Glossary, Java Bibliography, Java Reference materials

A friendly place for programming greenhorns

Jump straight into any of our topics and light hearted discussions. Ranging from
java, databases, android, programmer certification, programming jobs and much more…

Java: Find Java topics ranging from beginner’s questions to core Java, features in Java releases, Servlets and JSP, networking, I/O, GUIs with Swing or JavaFX, and more including game development!
Books: Discussions of books and lots of book reviews. You can even contribute your own book review. We even stick in software reviews and upcoming events.
Mobile: Programming for that chip in your life! Join programming discussions on portable devices, iOS vs Android, Mobile apps, UI advice, API guidance and App Store approval hints and tips.

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Java Software Engineering

Herbert Schildt

See also Java: The Complete Reference, Java Programming Language, Java Glossary, Java Bibliography, Java Reference materials

Herbert Schildt is an American computing author, programmer and musician. He has written books about various programming languages. He was also a founding member of the progressive rock band Starcastle.

Called “one of the world’s foremost authors of books about programming” by International Developer magazine, best-selling author Herbert Schildt has written about programming for over three decades. His books have sold millions of copies worldwide and have been widely translated. Featured as one of the rock star programmers in Ed Burns’ book “Secrets of the Rock Star Programmers”, Schildt is interested in all facets of computing, but his primary focus is computer languages. He is the author of numerous books on Java, C, C++, and C#. Schildt holds BA and MCS degrees from the University of Illinois, Urbana/Champaign.

Life

Schildt holds both graduate and undergraduate degrees from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC). He claims he was a member of the original ANSI committee that standardized the C language in 1989, and the ANSI/ISO committees that updated that standard in 1999, and standardized C++ in 1998.[1][unreliable source?] Other members of the ANSI C committee have drawn his presence in the committee and the quality of his committee efforts into question.[2][3]

Schildt has written books about DOS,[4] C, C++, C# and other computer languages. His earliest books were published around 1985 and 1986. (The book Advanced Modula-2 from 1987 says on the cover that it is his sixth book.) His books were initially published by Osborne, an early computer book publisher which concentrated on titles for the personal computer. After the acquisition of Osborne by McGraw-Hill, the imprint continued publishing Schildt’s work until the imprint was subsumed completely into the larger company.

Little C

One of Schildt’s most enduring projects is the Little C interpreter, which is a lengthy example of a hand-written recursive-descent parser which interprets a subset of the C language. The program was originally published in Dr. Dobb’s Journal in August, 1989 entitled “Building your own C interpreter”.[5] This example was included in the books Born to Code In C (Osborne, 1989), The Craft of C (Osborne, 1992),[6] and in a later edition of C: The Complete Reference.

Schildt’s book The Art of C++ similarly features an interpreter for a language called Mini-C++. (Mini-C++ does not support the “class” keyword, although minimal and artificial support for cin and cout has been added.) There is also a BASIC interpreter called Small BASIC in Turbo C: The Complete Reference, first edition, written in C, and another in The Art of Java (2003) written in Java.[7]

Code for all these is available for download from the McGraw Hill technical books website, under each book.[8]

Starcastle

In addition to his work as a computer scientist, Schildt is the original multi-keyboardist for the progressive rock band Starcastle, appearing on all of the group’s albums, most of which were produced from 1976-1978. His style is distinguished by extensive use of Oberheim analog sequencers to create ethereal washes of sound colors, a pioneering technique which was quite cutting-edge for the pre-digital synthesizer period. He is also featured on the band’s 2007 album “Song of Times.”[9]

Reception

Schildt is called “one of the world’s foremost authors of books about programming” by International Developer magazine.[10] He is featured as one of the rock star programmers in Ed Burns’ book Secrets of the Rock Star Programmers.[11] His books have sold in the millions, worldwide.[12]

Schildt’s books have a reputation for being riddled with errors.[13] Their technical accuracy has been challenged by many reviewers, including ISO C committee members Peter Seebach[2] and Clive Feather,[14] C FAQ author Steve Summit,[15] and numerous C Vu reviewers from the Association of C and C++ Users (ACCU).[16]

Other reviewers have been more positive, with one ACCU reviewer saying about Schildt’s C: The Complete Reference, Fourth Edition that Schildt “has learnt something, not enough to receive positive acclaim but enough to remove the ‘positively detrimental’ epithet”.[17]

Bibliography (of selected books)

References

  1. ^ “About Herb Schildt”official site. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  2. a b Seebach, Peter. “C: The Complete Nonsense (4th Edition)”. Retrieved 2010-04-08.
  3. ^ Clive Feather (18 January 2008). “Re: To Richard Heathfield from spinoza1111”. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
  4. ^ Shannon, L.R. (August 6, 1991). “PERIPHERALS; MS-DOS: The Latest Literature Helps Out”The New York Times. New York, New York. Retrieved 2010-04-29.
  5. ^ Herb Schildt (August 1, 1989). “Building Your Own C Interpreter”Dr. Dobb’s Journal. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  6. ^ Ian Ormesher (Sep 1993). “ACCU Reviews: The Craft of C”C VuACCU. Archived from the original on 2011-07-16. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  7. ^ The Art of Java, page 88, online at Google Books.
  8. ^ “Free Downloads: Samples and Code” McGraw-Hill Professional website. Retrieved April 26, 2010.
  9. ^ “Starcastle History – Prog rock”Starcastle official site. Retrieved 2010-04-25.
  10. ^https://web.archive.org/web/20060820041249/http://internationaldeveloper.com/contact_us.htm
  11. ^ Burns, Ed (2008). Secrets of the Rock Star Programmers: Riding the IT CrestISBN 978-0071490832.
  12. ^ http://ridingthecrest.com/interviews.html
  13. ^ Seebach, Peter. “C: The Complete Nonsense (3rd Edition)”. Retrieved 2010-04-22.
  14. ^ Feather, Clive. “The Annotated Annotated C Standard”.
  15. ^ Summit, Steve (1996). C Programming FAQs. Addison-Wesley. pp. 169–170ISBN 0-201-84519-9Unfortunately, the book contains numerous errors and omissions, primarily in the annotations, and a few pages of the standard itself are missing. Many people on the Internet recommend ignoring the annotations entirely.http://c-faq.com/ansi/avail.html
  16. ^ “Schildt” Reviews in C Vu, from the ACCU, last updated 13 May 2001. Retrieved 2010-04-22.
  17. ^ Francis Glassborow. “Book Review: C: The Complete Reference 4ed”ACCU. Retrieved 28 September 2013.

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Java Software Engineering

Java documentation

See also Java Programming Language, Java Glossary, Java Bibliography, Java Reference materials

Whether you are working on a new cutting edge app or simply ramping up on new technology, Java documentation has all the information you need to make your project a smashing success. Use the rich set of code samples, tutorials, developer guides, API documentation, and more to quickly develop your prototype and scale it up to a real world application.

Java Platform, Standard Edition (Java SE)

Java SE lets you develop and deploy Java applications on desktops and servers. Java SE and component technologies offer the rich user interface, performance, versatility, portability, and security that today’s applications require.Java SE Documentation

Java Embedded

Java ME Embedded is designed for resource-constrained devices like wireless modules for M2M, industrial control, smart-grid infrastructure, environmental sensors and tracking, and more.Java ME Embedded documentationOracle Java SE Embedded delivers a secure, optimized runtime environment ideal for network-based devices.Oracle Java SE Embedded and JDK for ARM documentationJava Card technology provides a secure environment for applications that run on smart cards and other devices with very limited memory and processing capabilities. Java Card documentation

Java Platform, Enterprise Edition (Java EE)

Java EE provides an API and runtime environment for developing and running large, multi-tiered, reliable, and secure enterprise applications that are portable and scalable and that integrate easily with legacy applications and data.

Java EE documentation

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Java Software Engineering

James Gosling

See also Java Programming Language, Java Glossary, Java Bibliography, Java Reference materials

James Arthur Gosling, often referred to as “Dr. Java”, OC (born May 19, 1955) is a Canadian computer scientist, best known as the founder and lead designer behind the Java programming language.[3]

James Gosling 2008.jpg
BornJames Gosling
May 19, 1955 (age 65)
CalgaryAlberta, Canada
NationalityCanadian
Alma materUniversity of Calgary
(BSc, 1977)
Carnegie Mellon University
(MAPhD, 1983)
Known forJava (programming language)
TitleDr. Java
Children2
AwardsOfficer of the Order of CanadaIEEE John von Neumann Medal The Economist Innovation AwardNAE Foreign Member
Scientific career
InstitutionsSun MicrosystemsOracle CorporationGoogleLiquid Robotics[1]Amazon Web Services
ThesisAlgebraic Constraints (1983)
Doctoral advisorBob Sproull and Raj Reddy[2

Early life

James Gosling received a Bachelor of Science from the University of Calgary [4] and his M.A. and Ph.D. from Carnegie Mellon University, all in computer science.[2][5][6] He wrote a version of Emacs called Gosling Emacs (Gosmacs) while working toward his doctorate. He built a multi-processor version of Unix for a 16-way computer system[7] while at Carnegie Mellon University, before joining Sun Microsystems. He also developed several compilers and mail systems there.

Career & contributions

Gosling was with Sun Microsystems between 1984 and 2010 (26 years). At Sun he invented an early Unix windowing system called NeWS, which became a lesser-used alternative to the still used X Window, because Sun did not give it an open source license.[citation needed]

He is known as the father of the Java programming language.[8][9] He got the idea for the Java VM while writing a program to port software from a PERQ by translating Perq Q-Code to VAX assembler and emulating the hardware. He is generally credited with having invented the Java programming language in 1994.[10][11][12] He created the original design of Java and implemented the language’s original compiler and virtual machine.[13] Gosling traces the origins of the approach to his early graduate student days, when he created a p-code virtual machine for the lab’s DEC VAX computer, so that his professor could run programs written in UCSD Pascal. In the work leading to Java at Sun, he saw that architecture-neutral execution for widely distributed programs could be achieved by implementing a similar philosophy: always program for the same virtual machine.[14] Another contribution of Gosling’s was co-writing the “bundle” program, known as “shar”, a utility thoroughly detailed in Brian Kernighan and Rob Pike‘s book The Unix Programming Environment.[15]

He left Sun Microsystems on April 2, 2010, after it was acquired by the Oracle Corporation,[8] citing reductions in pay, status, and decision-making ability, along with change of role and ethical challenges.[16] He has since taken a very critical stance towards Oracle in interviews, noting that “during the integration meetings between Sun and Oracle, where we were being grilled about the patent situation between Sun and Google, we could see the Oracle lawyer’s eyes sparkle.”[9] He clarified his position during the Oracle v. Google trial over Android: “While I have differences with Oracle, in this case they are in the right. Google totally slimed Sun. We were all really disturbed, even Jonathan [Schwartz]: he just decided to put on a happy face and tried to turn lemons into lemonade, which annoyed a lot of folks at Sun.”[17] However, he approved of the court’s ruling that APIs should not be copyrightable.[18]

In March 2011, Gosling joined Google.[19] Six months later, he followed his colleague Bill Vass and joined a startup called Liquid Robotics.[1] In late 2016, Liquid Robotics was acquired by Boeing.[20] Following the acquisition, Gosling left Liquid Robotics to work at Amazon Web Services as Distinguished Engineer in May 2017.[21]

He is an advisor at the Scala company Lightbend,[22] Independent Director at Jelastic,[23] and Strategic Advisor for Eucalyptus,[24] and is a board member of DIRTT Environmental Solutions.[25]

He is known for his love of proving “the unknown”[clarification needed] and has noted but later clarified to be untrue that his favorite irrational number is √2. He has a framed picture of the first 1,000 digits of √2 in his office.[26]

Awards

For his achievement, the National Academy of Engineering in the United States elected him as a Foreign Associate member.[27]

Books

  • Ken Arnold, James Gosling, David Holmes, The Java Programming Language, Fourth Edition, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2005, ISBN 0-321-34980-6
  • James Gosling, Bill JoyGuy L. Steele Jr.Gilad BrachaThe Java Language Specification, Third Edition, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2005, ISBN 0-321-24678-0
  • Ken Arnold, James Gosling, David Holmes, The Java Programming Language, Third Edition, Addison-Wesley Professional, 2000, ISBN 0-201-70433-1
  • James Gosling, Bill Joy, Guy L. Steele Jr., Gilad Bracha, The Java Language Specification, Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, 2000, ISBN 0-201-31008-2
  • Gregory Bollella (Editor), Benjamin Brosgol, James Gosling, Peter Dibble, Steve Furr, David Hardin, Mark Turnbull, The Real-Time Specification for Java, Addison Wesley Longman, 2000, ISBN 0-201-70323-8
  • Ken Arnold, James Gosling, The Java programming language Second Edition, Addison-Wesley, 1997, ISBN 0-201-31006-6
  • Ken Arnold, James Gosling, The Java programming language, Addison-Wesley, 1996, ISBN 0-201-63455-4
  • James Gosling, Bill Joy, Guy L. Steele Jr., The Java Language Specification, Addison Wesley Publishing Company, 1996, ISBN 0-201-63451-1
  • James Gosling, Frank Yellin, The Java Team, The Java Application Programming Interface, Volume 2: Window Toolkit and Applets, Addison-Wesley, 1996, ISBN 0-201-63459-7
  • James Gosling, Frank Yellin, The Java Team, The Java Application Programming Interface, Volume 1: Core Packages, Addison-Wesley, 1996, ISBN 0-201-63453-8
  • James Gosling, Henry McGilton, The Java language Environment: A white paperSun Microsystems, 1996
  • James Gosling, David S. H. Rosenthal, Michelle J. Arden, The NeWS Book : An Introduction to the Network/Extensible Window System (Sun Technical Reference Library), Springer, 1989, ISBN 0-387-96915-2

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to James Gosling.

References

  1. a b I’ve moved again : On a New Road. Nighthacks.com. Retrieved on 2016-05-17.
  2. a b James Gosling at the Mathematics Genealogy Project
  3. ^ “James Gosling – Computing History”Computinghistory.org.uk. Retrieved 2017-10-09.
  4. ^ “Archived copy”. Archived from the original on 2015-06-01. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
  5. ^ Gosling, James (1983). Algebraic Constraints (PhD thesis). Carnegie Mellon University. ProQuest 303133100.
  6. ^ Phd Awards By Advisor. Cs.cmu.edu. Retrieved on 2013-07-17.
  7. ^ James Gosling mentioned a multiprocessor Unix in his statement during the US vs Microsoft Antitrust DOJ trial in 1998 “DOJ/Antitrust”Statement in MS Antitrust case. US DOJ. Retrieved 1 February 2007.
  8. a b Guevin, Jennifer. “Java co-creator James Gosling leaves Oracle”CNET. Retrieved 13 June 2020.
  9. a b Shankland, Stephen. (2011-03-28) Java founder James Gosling joins Google. CNET Retrieved on 2012-02-21.
  10. ^ Allman, E. (2004). “Interview: A Conversation with James Gosling”Queue2(5): 24. doi:10.1145/1016998.1017013.
  11. ^ Gosling, J. (1997). “The feel of Java”. Computer30 (6): 53–57. doi:10.1109/2.587548.
  12. ^ “Sun Labs-The First Five Years: The First Fifty Technical Reports. A Commemorative Issue”Ching-Chih Chang, Amy Hall, Jeanie Treichel. Sun Microsystems, Inc. 1998. Retrieved 2010-02-07.
  13. ^ Gosling, James (2004-08-31). “A Conversation with James Gosling”ACM Queue. ACM. Retrieved 2014-07-03. At Sun he is best known for creating the original design of Java and implementing its original compiler and virtual machine.
  14. ^ McMillan, W.W. (2011). “The soul of the virtual machine: Java’s abIlIty to run on many dIfferent kInds of computers grew out of software devised decades before”. IEEE Spectrum48 (7): 44–48. doi:10.1109/MSPEC.2011.5910448S2CID 40545952.
  15. ^ Kernighan, Brian W; Pike, Rob (1984). The Unix Programming Environment. Prentice Hall. pp. 97-100ISBN 0-13-937681-X.
  16. ^ Darryl K. Taft. (2010-09-22) Java Creator James Gosling: Why I Quit Oracle. eWEEK.com
  17. ^ My attitude on Oracle v Google. Nighthacks.com. Retrieved on 2016-05-17.
  18. ^ “Meltdown Averted”Nighthacks.com. Retrieved 2017-03-13.
  19. ^ Next Step on the Road. Nighthacks.com. Retrieved on 2016-05-17.
  20. ^ “Boeing to Acquire Liquid Robotics to Enhance Autonomous Seabed-to-Space Information Services”. December 6, 2016.
  21. ^ Darrow, Barb (May 23, 2017). “Legendary Techie James Gosling Joins Amazon Web Services”Fortune.com. Retrieved 23 March 2018.
  22. ^ Typesafe — Company: Team. Typesafe.com. Retrieved on 2012-02-21.
  23. ^ James Gosling and Bruno Souza Join Jelastic as Advisers. InfoQ.com. Retrieved on 2014-11-24.
  24. ^ Eucalyptus Archived 2013-04-25 at the Wayback Machine. Eucalyptus.com Retrieved on 2013-04-22
  25. ^ “James Gosling”DIRTT Environmental Solutions Ltd.
  26. ^ UserGroupsatGoogle (29 November 2010). “James Gosling on Apple, Apache, Google, Oracle and the Future of Java”YouTube. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  27. ^ “NAE Members Directory – Dr. James Arthur Gosling”NAE. Retrieved March 29, 2011.
  28. ^ The 2002 Economist Innovation Award Winner Archived 2012-04-22 at the Wayback Machine.
  29. ^ “Flame Award”Usenix.org. 6 December 2011. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  30. ^ “Governor”. Archived from the original on February 7, 2008. Retrieved August 28, 2016.. February 20, 2007
  31. ^ ACM Names Fellows for Computing Advances that Are Transforming Science and Society Archived 2014-07-22 at the Wayback MachineAssociation for Computing Machinery, accessed 2013-12-10.
  32. ^ “IEEE JOHN VON NEUMANN MEDAL : RECIPIENTS” (PDF). Ieee.org. Retrieved 20 January 2018.
  33. ^ Computer History Museum names James Gosling a 2019 Fellow

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Java Software Engineering

Java Reference Materials

See also Java Bibliography, Java Programming Language or Java Glossary

Best Java programming reference books: Full list at Java Bibliography

Best reference sites for Java programming:

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Java Bibliography

See also: Java Reference Materials, Java Programming Language or Java Glossary

  1. Java official documentation: https://docs.oracle.com/en/java (JavDoc)
  2. Learning Java, Fifth Edition, by Marc Loy, Patrick Niemeyer, and Daniel Leuck, 2020, 978-1-492-05627-0, B086L2NYWR (LerJav)
  3. Java: The Complete Reference, 11th Edition, by Herbert Schildt, 2018, B07KSQ9RKF (JvCmRf)
  4. Java in a Nutshell – A Desktop Quick Reference, 7th Edition, by Ben Evans and David Flanagan, 2018, B07L3BFG49 (JvNutSh)
  5. Java Pocket Guide – Instant Help for Java Programmers, 4th Edition, by Robert Liguori, 2017, B0756P3CZD (JvPktGd)
  6. Head First Java, 3rd Edition, by Kathy Sierra and Bert Bates, 2021, 1491910771 (HFJav)
  7. Java – A Beginner’s Guide, 8th Edition, by Herbert Schildt, 2018, B07J2ZZ29H (JvBgnGd)
  8. Effective Java, 3rd Edition, by Joshua Bloch, 2017, B078H61SCH (EftJav)
  9. Modern Java in Action – Lambdas, streams, functional and reactive programming, 2nd Edition, by Raoul-Gabriel Urma, Mario Fusco, Alan Mycroft, 2018, 1617293563 (ModJavAc)
  10. Java Cookbook – Problems and Solutions for Java Developers, 4th Edition, by Ian F. Darwin, 2020, B08651PDL6 (JvCkbk)
  11. Java for Absolute Beginners – Learn to Program the Fundamentals the Java 9+ Way, by Iuliana Cosmina, 2018, B07L5C7GHH (JvAbBgn)
  12. Think Java – How to Think Like a Computer Scientist, 2nd Edition, by Allen B. Downey and Chris Mayfield, 2019, B08234FFCX (TnkJav)
  13. OCA Java SE 11 Programmer I Certification Guide, Exam 1Z0-815, by Mala Gupta, 2021, 9781617297465 (OCA11Gup)
  14. OCA Java SE 8 Programmer I Certification Guide, by Mala Gupta, 2016, 1617293253 (OCA8Gup)
  15. The Well-Grounded Java Developer, Second Edition, by Benjamin Evans, Jason Clark, and Martijn Verburg, 2021, 1617298875 (WelGrJvDv)
  16. Core Java – Volume I – Fundamentals, 11th Edition, by Cay S. Horstmann, 2020, B07G8DHTSZ (CorJav1)
  17. Core Java – Volume II – Advanced Features, 11th Edition, by Cay S. Horstmann, 2019, B07NCXJR1M (CorJav2)
  18. Java Quick Syntax Reference, 2nd Edition, by Mikael Olsson, 2018, B079BKJ6CB (JvQSynRf)
  19. Gosling, James; Joy, Bill; Steele, Guy; Bracha, Gilad; Buckley, Alex, 2014. The Java® Language Specification (PDF) (Java SE 8 ed.).
  20. Gosling, James; Joy, BillSteele, Guy L., Jr.Bracha, Gilad, 2005. The Java Language Specification (3rd ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-321-24678-0.
  21. Lindholm, Tim; Yellin, Frank, 1999. The Java Virtual Machine Specification (2nd ed.). Addison-Wesley. ISBN 0-201-43294-3.

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Java Glossary

See also Java Programming Language, Java Bibliography, Java Reference materials

” (LerJav)

abstract:

Java abstract keyword: “The Java abstract keyword is used to declare Java abstract methods and Java classes. An abstract method has no implementation defined; it is declared with Java arguments and a Java return type as usual, but the body enclosed in curly braces is replaced with a semicolon. The implementation of a Java abstract method is provided by a Java subclass of the Java class in which it is defined. If an abstract method appears in a class, the class is also abstract. Attempting to instantiate an abstract class will fail at compile time.” (LerJav)

annotations

Metadata added to Java source code using the @ tag syntax. Annotations can be used by the compiler or at runtime to augment classes, provide data or mappings, or flag additional services.

Ant

An older, XML-based build tool for Java applications. Ant builds can compile, package, and deploy Java source code as well as generate documentation and perform other activities through pluggable “targets.”

Application Programming Interface (API)

An API consists of the methods and variables programmers use to work with a component or tool in their applications. The Java language APIs consist of the classes and methods of the java.lang, java.util, java.io, java.text, java​.net packages and many others.

application

A Java program that runs standalone, as compared with an applet.

Annotation Processing Tool (APT)

A frontend for the Java compiler that processes annotations via a pluggable factory architecture, allowing users to implement custom compile-time annotations.

assertion

A language feature used to test for conditions that should be guaranteed by program logic. If a condition checked by an assertion is found to be false, a fatal error is thrown. For added performance, assertions can be disabled when an application is deployed.

atomic

Discrete or transactional in the sense that an operation happens as a unit, in an all-or-nothing fashion. Certain operations in the Java virtual machine (VM) and provided by the Java concurrency API are atomic.

Abstract Window Toolkit (AWT)

Java’s original platform-independent windowing, graphics, and UI toolkit.

Boojum

The mystical, spectral, alter ego of a Snark. From the 1876 Lewis Carroll poem “The Hunting of the Snark.”

Boolean

A primitive Java data type that contains a true or false value.

bounds

In Java generics, a limitation on the type of a type parameter. An upper bound specifies that a type must extend (or is assignable to) a specific Java class. A lower bound is used to indicate that a type must be a supertype of (or is assignable from) the specified type.

boxing

Wrapping of primitive types in Java by their object wrapper types. See also unboxing.

byte

A primitive Java data type that’s an 8-bit two’s-complement signed number.

callback

A behavior that is defined by one object and then later invoked by another object when a particular event occurs. The Java event mechanism is a kind of callback.

cast

The changing of the apparent type of a Java object from one type to another, specified type. Java casts are checked both statically by the Java compiler and at runtime.

catch

The Java catch statement introduces an exception-handling block of code following a try statement. The catch keyword is followed by one or more exception type and argument name pairs in parentheses and a block of code within curly braces.

certificate

An electronic document using a digital signature to assert the identity of a person, group, or organization. Certificates attest to the identity of a person or group and contain that organization’s public key. A certificate is signed by a certificate authority with its digital signature.

certificate authority (CA)

An organization that is entrusted to issue certificates, taking whatever steps are necessary to verify the real-world identity for which it is issuing the certificate.

char

A primitive Java data type; a variable of type char holds a single 16-bit Unicode character.

class

The fundamental unit that defines an object in most object-oriented programming languages. A class is an encapsulated collection of variables and methods that may have privileged access to one another. Usually a class can be instantiated to produce an object that’s an instance of the class, with its own unique set of data.

The class keyword is used to declare a class, thereby defining a new object type.

classloader

An instance of the class java.lang.ClassLoader, which is responsible for loading Java binary classes into the Java VM. Classloaders help partition classes based on their source for both structural and security purposes and can also be chained in a parent-child hierarchy.

class method

See static method.

classpath

The sequence of path locations specifying directories and archive files containing compiled Java class files and resources, which are searched in order to find components of a Java application.

class variable

See static variable.

client

The consumer of a resource or the party that initiates a conversation in the case of a networked client/server application. See also server.

Collections API

Classes in the core java.util package for working with and sorting structured collections or maps of items. This API includes the Vector and Hashtable classes as well as newer items such as List, Map, and Queue.

compilation unit

The unit of source code for a Java class. A compilation unit normally contains a single class definition and in most current development environments is simply a file with a .java extension.

compiler

A program that translates source code into executable code.

component architecture

A methodology for building parts of an application. It is a way to build reusable objects that can be easily assembled to form applications.

composition

Combining existing objects to create another, more complex object. When you compose a new object, you create complex behavior by delegating tasks to the internal objects. Composition is different from inheritance, which defines a new object by changing or refining the behavior of an old object. See also inheritance.

constructor

A special method that is invoked automatically when a new instance of a class is created. Constructors are used to initialize the variables of the newly created object. The constructor method has the same name as the class and no explicit return value.

content handler

A class that is called to parse a particular type of data and convert it to an appropriate object.

datagram

A packet of data normally sent using a connectionless protocol such as UDP, which provides no guarantees about delivery or error checking and provides no control information.

data hiding

See encapsulation.

deep copy

A duplicate of an object along with all of the objects that it references, transitively. A deep copy duplicates the entire “graph” of objects, instead of just duplicating references. See also shallow copy.

Document Object Model (DOM)

An in-memory representation of a fully parsed XML document using objects with names like Element, Attribute, and Text. The Java XML DOM API binding is standardized by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).

double

A Java primitive data type; a double value is a 64-bit (double-precision) floating-point number in IEEE-754 (binary64) binary format.

Document Type Definition (DTD)

A document containing specialized language that expresses constraints on the structure of XML tags and tag attributes. DTDs are used to validate an XML document, and can constrain the order and nesting of tags as well as the allowed values of attributes.

Enterprise JavaBeans (EJBs)

A server-side business component architecture named for, but not significantly related to, the JavaBeans component architecture. EJBs represent business services and database components, and provide declarative security and transactions.

encapsulation

The object-oriented programming technique of limiting the exposure of variables and methods to simplify the API of a class or package. Using the private and protected keywords, a programmer can limit the exposure of internal (“black box”) parts of a class. Encapsulation reduces bugs and promotes reusability and modularity of classes. This technique is also known as data hiding.

enum

The Java keyword for declaring an enumerated type. An enum holds a list of constant object identifiers that can be used as a type-safe alternative to numeric constants that serve as identifiers or labels.

enumeration

See enum.

erasure

The implementation technique used by Java generics in which generic type information is removed (erased) and distilled to raw Java types at compilation. Erasure provides backward compatibility with nongeneric Java code, but introduces some difficulties in the language.

event

A user’s action, such as a mouse-click or keypress.

The Java object delivered to a registered event listener in response to a user action or other activity in the system.

exception

A signal that some unexpected condition has occurred in the program. In Java, exceptions are objects that are subclasses of Exception or Error (which themselves are subclasses of Throwable). Exceptions in Java are “raised” with the throw keyword and handled with the catch keyword. See also catch, throw, and throws.

exception chaining

The design pattern of catching an exception and throwing a new, higher-level, or more appropriate exception that contains the underlying exception as its cause. The “cause” exception can be retrieved if necessary.

extends

A keyword used in a class declaration to specify the superclass of the class being defined. The class being defined has access to all the public and protected variables and methods of the superclass (or, if the class being defined is in the same package, it has access to all nonprivate variables and methods). If a class definition omits the extends clause, its superclass is taken to be java.lang.Object.

final

A keyword modifier that may be applied to classes, methods, and variables. It has a similar, but not identical, meaning in each case. When final is applied to a class, it means that the class may never be subclassed. java.lang.System is an example of a final class. A final method cannot be overridden in a subclass. When final is applied to a variable, the variable is a constant — that is, it can’t be modified. (The contents of a mutable object can still be changed; the final variable always points to the same object.)

finalize

A reserved method name. The finalize() method is called by the Java VM when an object is no longer being used (i.e., when there are no further references to it) but before the object’s memory is actually reclaimed by the system. Largely disfavored in light of newer approaches such as the Closeable interface and try-with-resources.

finally

A keyword that introduces the finally block of a try/catch/finally construct. catch and finally blocks provide exception handling and routine cleanup for code in a try block. The finally block is optional and appears after the try block, and after zero or more catch blocks. The code in a finally block is executed once, regardless of how the code in the try block executes. In normal execution, control reaches the end of the try block and proceeds to the finally block, which generally performs any necessary cleanup.

float

A Java primitive data type; a float value is a 32-bit (single-precision) floating-point number represented in IEEE 754 format.

garbage collection

The process of reclaiming the memory of objects no longer in use. An object is no longer in use when there are no references to it from other objects in the system and no references in any local variables on any thread’s method call stack.

generics

The syntax and implementation of parameterized types in the Java language, added in Java 5.0. Generic types are Java classes that are parameterized by the user on one or more additional Java types to specialize the behavior of the class. Generics are sometimes referred to as templates in other languages.

generic class

A class that uses the Java generics syntax and is parameterized by one or more type variables, which represent class types to be substituted by the user of the class. Generic classes are particularly useful for container objects and collections that can be specialized to operate on a specific type of element.

generic method

A method that uses the Java generics syntax and has one or more arguments or return types that refer to type variables representing the actual type of data element the method will use. The Java compiler can often infer the types of the type variables from the usage context of the method.

graphics context

A drawable surface represented by the java.awt.Graphics class. A graphics context contains contextual information about the drawing area and provides methods for performing drawing operations in it.

graphical user interface (GUI)

A traditional, visual user interface consisting of a window containing graphical items such as buttons, text fields, pull-down menus, dialog boxes, and other standard interface components.

hashcode

A random-looking identifying number, based on the data content of an object, used as a kind of signature for the object. A hashcode is used to store an object in a hash table (or hash map). See also hash table.

hash table

An object that is like a dictionary or an associative array. A hash table stores and retrieves elements using key values called hashcodes. See also hashcode.

hostname

The human-readable name given to an individual computer attached to the internet.

Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP)

The protocol used by web browsers or other clients to talk to web servers. The simplest form of the protocol uses the commands GET to request a file and POST to send data.

Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

A GUI tool such as IntelliJ IDEA or Eclipse that provides source editing, compiling, running, debugging, and deployment functionality for developing Java applications.

implements

A keyword used in class declarations to indicate that the class implements the named interface or interfaces. The implements clause is optional in class declarations; if it appears, it must follow the extends clause (if any). If an implements clause appears in the declaration of a non-abstract class, every method from each specified interface must be implemented by the class or by one of its superclasses.

import

The import statement makes Java classes available to the current class under an abbreviated name or disambiguates classes imported in bulk by other import statements. (Java classes are always available by their fully qualified name, assuming the appropriate class file can be found relative to the CLASSPATH environment variable and that the class file is readable. import doesn’t make the class available; it just saves typing and makes your code more legible.) Any number of import statements may appear in a Java program. They must appear, however, after the optional package statement at the top of the file, and before the first class or interface definition in the file.

inheritance

An important feature of object-oriented programming that involves defining a new object by changing or refining the behavior of an existing object. Through inheritance, an object implicitly contains all of the non-private variables and methods of its superclass. Java supports single inheritance of classes and multiple inheritance of interfaces.

inner class

A class definition that is nested within another class or a method. An inner class functions within the lexical scope of another class.

instance

An occurrence of something, usually an object. When a class is instantiated to produce an object, we say the object is an instance of the class.

instance method

A non-static method of a class. Such a method is passed an implicit this reference to the object that invoked it. See also static, static method.

instanceof

A Java operator that returns true if the object on its left side is an instance of the class (or implements the interface) specified on its right side. instanceof returns false if the object isn’t an instance of the specified class or doesn’t implement the specified interface. It also returns false if the specified object is null.

instance variable

A non-static variable of a class. Each instance of a class has an independent copy of all of the instance variables of the class. See also class variable, static.

int

A primitive Java data type that’s a 32-bit two’s-complement signed number.

interface

A keyword used to declare an interface.

A collection of abstract methods that collectively define a type in the Java language. Classes implementing the methods may declare that they implement the interface type, and instances of them may be treated as that type.

internationalization

The process of making an application accessible to people who speak a variety of languages. Sometimes abbreviated I18N.

interpreter

The module that decodes and executes Java bytecode. Most Java bytecode is not, strictly speaking, interpreted any longer but compiled to native code dynamically by the Java VM.

introspection

The process by which a JavaBean provides additional information about itself, supplementing information learned by reflection.

ISO 8859-1

An 8-bit character encoding standardized by the ISO. This encoding is also known as Latin-1 and contains characters from the Latin alphabet suitable for English and most languages of western Europe.

JavaBeans

A component architecture for Java. It is a way to build interoperable Java objects that can be manipulated easily in a visual application builder environment.

Java beans

Java classes that are built following the JavaBeans design patterns and conventions.

JavaScript

A language developed early in the history of the web by Netscape for creating dynamic web pages. From a programmer’s point of view, it’s unrelated to Java, although some of its syntax is similar.

Java API for XML Binding (JAXB)

A Java API that allows for generation of Java classes from XML DTD or Schema descriptions and the generation of XML from Java classes.

Java API for XML Parsers (JAXP)

The Java API that allows for pluggable implementations of XML and XSL engines. This API provides an implementation-neutral way to construct parsers and transforms.

JAX-RPC

The Java API for XML Remote Procedure Calls, used by web services.

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)

The standard Java API for talking to an SQL (Structured Query Language) database.

JDOM

A native Java XML DOM created by Jason Hunter and Brett McLaughlin. JDOM is easier to use than the standard DOM API for Java. It uses the Java Collections API and standard Java conventions. Available at the JDOM Project site.

Java Web Services Developer Pack (JDSDP)

A bundle of standard extension APIs packaged as a group with an installer from Sun. The JWSDP includes JAXB, JAX-RPC, and other XML and web services-related packages.

lambda (or lambda expression)

A compact way to put the entire definition of a small, anonymous function right where you are using it in the code.

Latin-1

A nickname for ISO 8859-1.

layout manager

An object that controls the arrangement of components within the display area of a Swing or AWT container.

lightweight component

A pure Java GUI component that has no native peer in the AWT.

local variable

A variable that is declared inside a method. A local variable can be seen only by code within that method.

Logging API

The Java API for structured logging and reporting of messages from within application components. The Logging API supports logging levels indicating the importance of messages, as well as filtering and output capabilities.

long

A primitive Java data type that’s a 64-bit two’s-complement signed number.

message digest

A cryptographically computed number based on the content of a message, used to determine whether the message’s contents have been changed in any way. A change to a message’s contents will change its message digest. When implemented properly, it is almost impossible to create two similar messages with the same digest.

method

The object-oriented programming term for a function or procedure.

method overloading

Provides definitions of more than one method with the same name but with different argument lists. When an overloaded method is called, the compiler determines which one is intended by examining the supplied argument types.

method overriding

Defines a method that matches the name and argument types of a method defined in a superclass. When an overridden method is invoked, the interpreter uses dynamic method lookup to determine which method definition is applicable to the current object. Beginning in Java 5.0, overridden methods can have different return types, with restrictions.

MIME (or MIME type)

A media type classification system often associated with email attachments or web page content.

Model-View-Controller (MVC) framework

A UI design that originated in Smalltalk. In MVC, the data for a display item is called the model. A view displays a particular representation of the model, and a controller provides user interaction with both. Java incorporates many MVC concepts.

modifier

A keyword placed before a class, variable, or method that alters the item’s accessibility, behavior, or semantics. See also abstract, final, native method, private, protected, public, static, synchronized.

NaN (not-a-number)

This is a special value of the double and float data types that represents an undefined result of a mathematical operation, such as zero divided by zero.

native method

A method that is implemented in a native language on a host platform, rather than being implemented in Java. Native methods provide access to such resources as the network, the windowing system, and the host filesystem.

new

A unary operator that creates a new object or array (or raises an OutOfMemoryException if there is not enough memory available).

NIO

The Java “new” I/O package. A core package introduced in Java 1.4 to support asynchronous, interruptible, and scalable I/O operations. The NIO API supports nonthreadbound “select” style I/O handling.

null

null is a special value that indicates that a reference-type variable doesn’t refer to any object instance. Static and instance variables of classes default to the value null if not otherwise assigned.

object

The fundamental structural unit of an object-oriented programming language, encapsulating a set of data and behavior that operates on that data.

An instance of a class, having the structure of the class but its own copy of data elements. See also instance.

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Artificial Intelligence Cloud Data Science - Big Data Hardware and Electronics History Networking Operating Systems Software Engineering

Timeline of the History of Computers

Return to History or This Year in History

c. 2500 BC – Sumerian Abacus

c. 700 BC – Scytale

c. 150 BC – Antikythera Mechanism

c. 60 – Programmable Robot

c. 850 – On Deciphering Cryptographic Messages

c. 1470 – Cipher Disk

1613 – First Recorded Use of the Word Computer

1621 – Slide Rule

1703 – Binary Arithmetic

1758 – Human Computers Predict Halley’s Comet

1770 – The “Mechanical Turk”

1792 – Optical Telegraph

1801 – The Jacquard Loom

1822 – The Difference Engine

1833 – Michael Faraday discovered silver sulfide became a better conductor when heated

1836 – Electrical Telegraph

1843 – Ada Lovelace Writes a Computer Program

1843 – Fax Machine Patented

1843 – Edgar Allan Poe’s “The Gold-Bug”

1849 to early 1900s – Silicon Valley After the Gold Rush

1851 – Thomas Arithmometer

1854 – Boolean Algebra

1864 – First Electromagnetic Spam Message

1870 – Mitsubishi founded

1874 – Baudot Code

1874 – Semiconductor Diode conceived of

1876 – Ericsson Corporation founded in Sweden

1885 – Stanford University

1885 – William Burroughs’ adding machine

1890 – Herman Hollerith Tabulating the US Census

1890 – Toshiba founded in Japan

1891 – Strowger Step-by-Step Switch

1898 – Nippon Electric Limited Partnership – NEC Corporation founded in Japan

1890s to 1930s – Radio Engineering

Early 1900s – Electrical Engineering

1904 – “Diode” or Two-Element Amplifier actually invented

1904 – Three-Element Amplifier or “Triode”

1906 – Vacuum Tube or “Audion”

1907 – Lee DeForest coins the term “radio” to refer to wireless transmission when he formed his DeForest Radio Telephone Company

1909 – Charles Herrold in San Jose started first radio station in USA with regularly scheduled programming, including songs, using an arc transmitter of his own design. Herrold was one of Stanford’s earliest students and founded his own College of Wireless and Engineering in San Jose

1910 – Radio Broadcasting business pioneered by Lee DeForest with broadcast from New York of a live performance by Italian tenor Enrico Caruso

1910 – Hitachi founded in Japan

1912 – Sharp Corporation founded in Japan and takes its name from one of its founder’s first inventions, the Ever-Sharp mechanical pencil

1914 – Floating-Point Numbers

1917 – Vernam Cipher

1918 – Panasonic, then Matsushita Electric, founded in Japan

1920 – Rossum’s Universal Robots

1927 – Fritz Lang’s Metropolis

1927 – First LED

1928 – Electronic Speech Synthesis

1930 – The Enigma Machine

1931 – Differential Analyzer

1935 – Fujitsu founded as Fuji Telecommunications Equipment Manufacturing in Japan. Fujitsu is the second oldest IT company after IBM and before Hewlett-Packard

1936 – Church-Turing Thesis

1939 – Hewlett-Packard founded in a one-car garage in Palo Alto, California by Bill Hewlett and David Packard

1939 – Toshiba founded in Japan

1941Z3 Computer

1942Atanasoff-Berry Computer

1942 – Isaac Asimov’s Three Laws of Robotics

1942Seiko Corporation founded in Japan

1943ENIAC

1943Colossus

1944Delay Line Memory

1944Binary-Coded Decimal

1945Vannevar Bush‘s “As We May Think

1945EDVAC First Draft Report – The von Neumann architecture

1946 – Trackball

1946 – Williams Tube Random Access Memory

1947 – Actual Bug Found – First “debugging”

1947 – William Shockley’s Silicon Transistor

1948 – The Bit – Binary Digit 0 or 1

1948 – Curta Calculator

1948 – Manchester SSEM

1949 – Whirlwind Computer

1950 – Error-Correcting Codes (ECC)

1951 – Turing Test of Artificial Intelligence (AI)

1951 – Magnetic Tape Used for Computers

1951 – Core Memory

1951 – Microprogramming

1952 – Computer Speech Recognition

1953 – First Transistorized Computer

1955 – Artificial Intelligence (AI) Coined

1955 – Computer Proves Mathematical Theorem

1956 – First Disk Storage Unit

1956 – The Byte

1956 – Robby the Robot from Forbidden Planet

1957 – FORTRAN Programming Language

1957 – First Digital Image

1958 – The Bell 101 Modem

1958 – SAGE Computer Operational

1959 – IBM 1401 Computer

1959 – DEC PDP-1

1959 – Quicksort Algorithm

1959 – SABRE Airline Reservation System

1960 – COBOL Programming Language

1960 – Recommended Standard 232 (RS-232)

1961 – ANITA Electronic Calculator

1961 – Unimate – First Mass-Produced Robot

1961 – Time-Sharing – The Original “Cloud Computing

1961 – Shinshu Seiki Company founded in Japan (now called Seiko Epson Corporation) as a subsidiary of Seiko to supply precision parts for Seiko watches.

1962 – Spacewar! Video Game

1962 – Virtual Memory

1962 – Digital Long Distance Telephone Calls

1963 – Sketchpad Interactive Computer Graphics

1963 – ASCII Character Encoding

1963 – Seiko Corporation in Japan developed world’s first portable quartz timer (Seiko QC-951)

1964 – RAND Tablet Computer

1964 – Teletype Model 33 ASR

1964 – IBM System/360 Mainframe Computer

1964 – BASIC Programming Language

1965 – First Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD)

1965 – Fiber Optics – Optical-Fiber

1965 – DENDRAL Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research Project

1965 – ELIZA – The First “Chatbot” – 1965

1965 – Touchscreen

1966 – Star Trek Premieres

1966 – Dynamic RAM

1966 – Linear predictive coding (LPC) proposed by Fumitada Itakura of Nagoya University and Shuzo Saito of Nippon Telegraph and Telephone (NTT).[71]

1967 – Object-Oriented Programming

1967 – First ATM Machine

1967 – Head-Mounted Display

1967 – Programming for Children

1967 – The Mouse

1968 – Carterfone Decision

1968 – Software Engineering

1968 – HAL 9000 Computer from 2001: A Space Odyssey

1968 – First “Spacecraft” “Guided by Computer”

1968 – Cyberspace Coined—and Re-Coined

1968 – Mother of All Demos

1968 – Dot Matrix Printer – Shinshu Seiki (now called Seiko Epson Corporation) launched the world’s first mini-printer, the EP-101 (“EP” for Electronic Printer,) which was soon incorporated into many calculators

1968 – Interface Message Processor (IMP)

1969 – ARPANET / Internet

1969 – Digital Imaging

1969 – Network Working Group Request for Comments (RFC): 1

1969 – Utility Computing – Early “Cloud Computing

1969 – Perceptrons Book – Dark Ages of Neural Networks Artificial Intelligence (AI)

1969 – UNIX Operating System

1969 – Seiko Epson Corporation in Japan developed world’s first quartz watch timepiece (Seiko Quartz Astron 35SQ)

1970 – Fair Credit Reporting Act

1970 – Relational Databases

1970 – Floppy Disk

1971 – Laser Printer

1971 – NP-Completeness

1971 – @Mail Electronic Mail

1971 – First Microprocessor – General-Purpose CPU – “Computer on a Chip”

1971 – First Wireless Network

1972 – C Programming Language

1972 – Cray Research Supercomputers – High-Performance Computing (HPC)

1972 – Game of Life – Early Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research

1972 – HP-35 Calculator

1972 – Pong Game from Atari – Nolan Bushnell

1973 – First Cell Phone Call

1973 – Danny Cohen first demonstrated a form of packet voice as part of a flight simulator application, which operated across the early ARPANET.[69][70]

1973 – Xerox Alto from Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)

1973 – Sharp Corporation produced the first LCD calculator

1974 – Data Encryption Standard (DES)

1974 – The Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) publishes a paper entitled “A Protocol for Packet Network Interconnection”.[82]

1974 – Network Voice Protocol (NVP) tested over ARPANET in August 1974, carrying barely audible 16 kpbs CVSD encoded voice.[71]

1974 – The first successful real-time conversation over ARPANET achieved using 2.4 kpbs LPC, between Culler-Harrison Incorporated in Goleta, California, and MIT Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts.[71]

1974 – First Personal Computer: The Altair 8800 Invented by MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico

1975 – Colossal Cave Adventure – Text-based “Video” Game

1975 – The Shockwave Rider SciFi Book – A Prelude of the 21st Century Big Tech Police State

1975 – AI Medical Diagnosis – Artificial Intelligence in Medicine

1975 – BYTE Magazine

1975 – Homebrew Computer Club

1975 – The Mythical Man-Month

1975 – The name Epson was coined for the next generation of printers based on the EP-101 which was released to the public. (EPSON:E-P-SON: SON of Electronic Printer).[7] Epson America Inc. was established to sell printers for Shinshu Seiki Co.

1976 – Public Key Cryptography

1976 – Acer founded

1976 – Tandem NonStop

1976 – Dr. Dobb’s Journal

1977 – RSA Encryption

1977 – Apple II Computer

The TRS-80 Model I pictured alongside the Apple II and the Commodore PET 2001-8. These three computers constitute what Byte Magazine called the “1977 Trinity” of home computing.

1977 – Danny Cohen and Jon Postel of the USC Information Sciences Institute, and Vint Cerf of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), agree to separate IP from TCP, and create UDP for carrying real-time traffic.

1978 – First Internet Spam Message

1978 – France’s Minitel Videotext

1979 – Secret Sharing for Encryption

1979 – Dan Bricklin Invents VisiCalc Spreadsheet

1980 – Timex Sinclair ZX80 Computer

1980 – Flash Memory

1980 – RISC Microprocessors – Reduced Instruction Set Computer CPUs

1980 – Commercially Available Ethernet Invented by Robert Metcalfe of 3Com

1980 – Usenet

1981 – IBM Personal Computer – IBM PC

1981 – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Email

1981 – Japan’s Fifth Generation Computer SystemsJapan

1982 – Sun Microsystems was founded on February 24, 1982.[2]

1982 – AutoCAD

1982 – First Commercial UNIX Workstation

1982 – PostScript

1982 – Microsoft and the IBM PC Clones

1982 – First CGI Sequence in Feature Film – Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan

1982 – National Geographic Moves the Pyramids – Precursor to Photoshop

1982 – Secure Multi-Party Computation

1982 – TRON Movie

1982 – Home Computer Named Machine of the Year by Time Magazine

1983 – The Qubit – Quantum Computers

1983 – WarGames

1983 – 3-D Printing

1983 – Computerization of the Local Telephone Network

1983 – First Laptop

1983 – MIDI Computer Music Interface

1983 – Microsoft Word

1983 – Nintendo Entertainment System – Video Games

1983 – Domain Name System (DNS)

1983 – IPv4 Flag Day – TCP/IP

1984 – Text-to-Speech (TTS)

1984 – Apple Macintosh

1984 – VPL Research, Inc. – Virtual Reality (VR)

1984 – Quantum Cryptography

1984 – Telebit TrailBlazer Modems Break 9600 bps

1984 – Verilog Language

1984 – Dell founded by Michael Dell

1984 – Cisco Systems was founded in December 1984

1985 – Connection Machine – Parallelization

1985 – First Computer-Generated TV Host – Max HeadroomCGI

1985 – Zero-Knowledge Mathematical Proofs

1985 – FCC Approves Unlicensed Wireless Spread Spectrum

1985 – NSFNET National Science Foundation “Internet”

1985 – Desktop Publishing – with Macintosh, Aldus PageMaker, LaserJet, LaserWriter and PostScript

1985 – Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA)

1985 – GNU Manifesto from Richard Stallman

1985 – AFIS Stops a Serial Killer – Automated Fingerprint Identification System

1986 – Software Bug Fatalities

1986 – Pixar Animation Studios

1986 – D-Link Corporation founded in Taipei, Taiwan

1987 – Digital Video Editing

1987 – GIF – Graphics Interchange Format

1988 – MPEG – Moving Picture Experts Group – Coding-Compressing Audio-Video

1988 – CD-ROM

1988 – Morris Worm Internet Computer Virus

1988 – Linksys founded

1989 – World Wide Web-HTML-HTTP Invented by Tim Berners-Lee

1989 – Asus was founded in Taipei, Taiwan

1989 – SimCity Video Game

1989 – ISP Provides Internet Access to the Public

1990 – GPS Is Operational – Global Positioning System

1990 – Digital Money is Invented – DigiCash – Precursor to Bitcoin

1991 – Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)

1991 – DARPA’s Report “Computers at Risk: Safe Computing in the Information Age

1991 – Linux Kernel Operating System Invented by Linus Torvalds

1992 – Boston Dynamics Robotics Company Founded

1992 – JPEG – Joint Photographic Experts Group

1992 – First Mass-Market Web Browser NCSA Mosaic Invented by Marc Andreessen

1992 – Unicode Character Encoding

1993 – Apple Newton

1994 – First Banner Ad – Wired Magazine

1994 – RSA-129 Encryption Cracked

1995 – DVD

1995 – E-Commerce Startups – eBay, Amazon and DoubleClick Launched

1995 – AltaVista Web Search Engine

1995 – Gartner Hype Cycle

1996 – Universal Serial Bus (USB)

1996 – Juniper Networks founded

1997 – IBM Computer Is World Chess Champion

1997 – PalmPilot

1997 – E Ink

1998 – Diamond Rio MP3 Player

1998 – Google

1999 – Collaborative Software Development

1999 – Blog Is Coined

1999 – Napster P2P Music and File Sharing

2000 – USB Flash Drive

2000 – Sharp Corporation’s Mobile Communications Division created the world’s first commercial camera phone, the J-SH04, in Japan

2000 – Fortinet founded

2001 – Wikipedia

2001 – Apple iTunes

2001 – Advanced Encryption Standard (AES)

2001 – Quantum Computer Factors “15”

2002 – Home-Cleaning Robot

2003 – CAPTCHA

2004 – Product Tracking

2004 – Facebook

2004 – First International Meeting on Synthetic Biology

2005 – Video Game Enables Research into Real-World Pandemics

2006 – Apache Hadoop Makes Big Data Possible

2006 – Differential Privacy

2007 – Apple iPhone

2008 – Bitcoin

2010 – Air Force Builds Supercomputer with Gaming Consoles

2010 – Cyber Weapons

2011 – Smart Homes via the Internet of Things (IoT)

2011 – IBM Watson Wins Jeopardy!

2011 – World IPv6 Day

2011 – Social Media Enables the Arab Spring

2012 – DNA Data Storage

2013 – Algorithm Influences Prison Sentence

2013 – Subscription Software “Popularized”

2014 – Data Breaches

2014 – Over-the-Air Vehicle Software Updates

2015 – Google Releases TensorFlow

2016 – Augmented Reality Goes Mainstream

2016 – Computer Beats Master at Game of Go

~2050 -Hahahaha! – Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)

~9999 – The Limits of Computation?

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Java Software Engineering

Java JAR File Compression

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File Compression

“Items stored in JAR files are compressed with the standard ZIP file compression. Compression makes downloading classes over a network much faster. A quick survey of the standard Java distribution shows that a typical class file shrinks by about 40% when it is compressed. Text files such as HTML or ASCII containing English words often compress to one-tenth their original size or less. (On the other hand, image files don’t normally get smaller when compressed, as most common image formats are themselves a compression format.)”

“Java also has an archive format called Pack200, which is optimized specifically for Java class bytecode and can achieve over four times’ greater compression of Java classes than ZIP alone.”

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Java JAR Files

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JAR Files

“Java archive (JAR) files are Java’s suitcases. They are the standard and portable way to pack up all the parts of your Java application into a compact bundle for distribution or installation. You can put whatever you want into a JAR file: Java class files, serialized objects, data files, images, audio, etc. A JAR file can also carry one or more digital signatures that attest to its integrity and authenticity. A signature can be attached to the file as a whole or to individual items in the file.”

“The Java runtime system can load class files directly from an archive in your CLASSPATH, as described earlier. Nonclass files (data, images, etc.) contained in your JAR file can also be retrieved from the classpath by your application using the getResource() method. Using this facility, your code doesn’t have to know whether any resource is in a plain file or a member of a JAR archive. Whether a given class or data file is an item in a JAR file or an individual file on the classpath, you can always refer to it in a standard way and let Java’s class loader resolve the location.”

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Learning Java: An Introduction to Real-World Programming with Java

See also Java Programming Language, Java Glossary, Java Bibliography, Java Reference materials

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By Marc Loy, Patrick Niemeyer, and Daniel Leuck

Learning Java, Fifth Edition, by Marc Loy, Patrick Niemeyer, and Daniel Leuck, 2020, 978-1-492-05627-0, B086L2NYWR (LerJav)

“If you’re new to Java—or new to programming—this best-selling book will guide you through the language features and APIs of Java 11. With fun, compelling, and realistic examples, authors Marc Loy, Patrick Niemeyer, and Daniel Leuck introduce you to Java fundamentals—including its class libraries, programming techniques, and idioms—with an eye toward building real applications.

You’ll learn powerful new ways to manage resources and exceptions in your applications—along with core language features included in recent Java versions.

  • Develop with Java, using the compiler, interpreter, and other tools
  • Explore Java’s built-in thread facilities and concurrency package
  • Learn text processing and the powerful regular expressions API
  • Write advanced networked or web-based applications and services

About the Author

Marc Loy started with Java training at Sun Microsystems in the early days (shout out to HotJava!) and never looked back. He authored a number of early Java books and training courses, working with a wide variety of companies across the US, Europe and Asia along the way. For O’Reilly, Marc has served as co-author on Java Swing and Learning GNU Emacs. Currently in Ohio, Marc is a software developer and trainer specializing in user experience design and mobile applications.

Patrick Niemeyer became involved with Oak (Java’s predecessor) while working at Southwestern Bell Technology Resources. He is an independent consultant and author in the areas of networking and distributed applications. Pat is the author of BeanShell, a popular Java scripting language, as well as various other free goodies on the Net. Most recently, Pat has been developing enterprise architecture for A.G. Edwards. He currently lives in the Central West End area of St. Louis with various creatures.

Dan Leuck is the CEO of Ikayzo, a Tokyo and Honolulu-based interactive design and software development firm with customers including Sony, Oracle, Nomura, PIMCO and the federal government. He previously served as Senior Vice President of Research and Development for Tokyo-based ValueCommerce, Asia’s largest online marketing company, Global Head of Development for London-based LastMinute.com, Europe’s largest B2C website, and President of the US division of DML. Daniel has extensive experience managing teams of 150+ developers in five countries. He has served on numerous advisory boards and panels for companies such as Macromedia and Sun Microsystems. Daniel is active in the Java community, is a contributor to BeanShell, the project lead for SDL, and sits on numerous Java Community Process expert groups.

Product details

  • Print length : 848 pages
  • Publication date : March 30, 2020
  • Publisher : O’Reilly Media; 5th edition (March 30, 2020)
  • ASIN : B086L2NYWR

Preface

“This book is about the Java programming language and environment. Whether you are a software developer or just someone who uses the internet in your daily life, you’ve undoubtedly heard about Java. Its introduction was one of the most exciting developments in the history of the web, and Java applications have powered much of the growth of business on the internet. Java is, arguably, the most popular programming language in the world, used by millions of developers on almost every kind of computer imaginable. Java has surpassed languages such as C++ and Visual Basic in terms of developer demand and has become the de facto language for certain kinds of development — especially for web-based services. Most universities are now using Java in their introductory courses alongside the other important modern languages. Perhaps you are using this text in one of your classes right now!

This book gives you a thorough grounding in Java fundamentals and APIs. Learning Java, Fifth Edition, attempts to live up to its name by mapping out the Java language and its class libraries, programming techniques, and idioms. We’ll dig deep into interesting areas and at least scratch the surface of other popular topics. Other titles from O’Reilly pick up where we leave off and provide more comprehensive information on specific areas and applications of Java.

Whenever possible, we provide compelling, realistic, and fun examples and avoid merely cataloging features. The examples are simple, but hint at what can be done. We won’t be developing the next great “killer app” in these pages, but we hope to give you a starting point for many hours of experimentation and inspired tinkering that will lead you to develop one yourself.

Web page for this book where they list errata and any additional information. You can access this page at https://oreil.ly/Java_5e.” (B086L2NYWR)

Who Should Read This Book

“This book is for computer professionals, students, technical people, and Finnish hackers. It’s for everyone who has a need for hands-on experience with the Java language with an eye toward building real applications. This book could also be considered a crash course in object-oriented programming, networking, and user interfaces. As you learn about Java, you’ll also learn a powerful and practical approach to software development, beginning with a deep understanding of the fundamentals of Java and its APIs.

Superficially, Java looks like C or C++, so you’ll have a tiny headstart in using this book if you have some experience with one of these languages. If you do not, don’t worry. Don’t make too much of the syntactic similarities between Java and C or C++. In many respects, Java acts like more dynamic languages such as Smalltalk and Lisp. Knowledge of another object-oriented programming language should certainly help, although you may have to change some ideas and unlearn a few habits. Java is considerably simpler than languages such as C++ and Smalltalk. If you learn well from concise examples and personal experimentation, we think you’ll like this book.

The last part of this book branches out to discuss Java in the context of web applications, web services, and request processing, so you should be familiar with the basic ideas behind web browsers, servers, and documents.” (B086L2NYWR)

New Developments

“This edition of Learning Java is actually the seventh edition — updated and retitled — of our original, popular Exploring Java. With each edition, we’ve taken great care not only to add new material covering additional features, but to thoroughly revise and update the existing content to synthesize the coverage and add years of real-world perspective and experience to these pages.

One noticeable change in recent editions is that we’ve de-emphasized the use of applets, reflecting their diminished role in recent years in creating interactive web pages. In contrast, we’ve greatly expanded our coverage of Java web applications and web services, which are now mature technologies.

We cover all of the important features of the latest “long-term support” release of Java, officially called Java Standard Edition (SE) 11, OpenJDK 11, but we also add in a few details from the “feature” releases of Java 12, Java 13, and Java 14. Sun Microsystems (Java’s keeper before Oracle) has changed the naming scheme many times over the years. Sun coined the term Java 2 to cover the major new features introduced in Java version 1.2 and dropped the term JDK in favor of SDK. With the sixth release, Sun skipped from Java version 1.4 to Java 5.0, but reprieved the term JDK and kept its numbering convention there. After that, we had Java 6, Java 7, and so on, and now we are at Java 14.

This release of Java reflects a mature language with occasional syntactic changes and updates to APIs and libraries. We’ve tried to capture these new features and update every example in this book to reflect not only the current Java practice, but style as well.” (B086L2NYWR)

New in This Edition (Java 11, 12, 13, 14)

“This edition of the book continues our tradition of rework to be as complete and up-to-date as possible. It incorporates changes from both the Java 11 — again, the long-term support version — and Java 12, 13, and 14 feature releases. (More on the specifics of the Java features included and excluded in recent releases in Chapter 13.) New topics in this edition include:

New language features, including type inference in generics and improved exception handling and automatic resource management syntax

New interactive playground, jshell, for trying out code snippets

The proposed switch expression

Basic lambda expressions

Updated examples and analysis throughout the book” (B086L2NYWR)

Using This Book

“This book is organized roughly as follows:

Chapters 1 and 2 provide a basic introduction to Java concepts and a tutorial to give you a jump-start on Java programming.

Chapter 3 discusses fundamental tools for developing with Java (the compiler, the interpreter, jshell, and the JAR file package).

Chapters 4 and 5 introduce programming fundamentals, then describe the Java language itself, beginning with the basic syntax and then covering classes and objects, exceptions, arrays, enumerations, annotations, and much more.

Chapter 6 covers exceptions, errors, and the logging facilities native to Java.

Chapter 7 covers collections alongside generics and parameterized types in Java.

Chapter 8 covers text processing, formatting, scanning, string utilities, and much of the core API utilities.

Chapter 9 covers the language’s built-in thread facilities.

Chapter 10 covers the basics of graphical user interface (GUI) development with Swing.

Chapter 11 covers Java I/O, streams, files, sockets, networking, and the NIO package.

Chapter 12 covers web applications using servlets, servlet filters, and WAR files, as well as web services.

Chapter 13 introduces the Java Community Process and highlights how to track future changes to Java while helping you retrofit existing code with new features, such as the lambda expressions introduced in Java 8.

If you’re like us, you don’t read books from front to back. If you’re really like us, you usually don’t read the preface at all. However, on the off chance that you will see this in time, here are a few suggestions:

If you are already a programmer and just need to learn Java in the next five minutes, you are probably looking for the examples. You might want to start by glancing at the tutorial in Chapter 2. If that doesn’t float your boat, you should at least look at the information in Chapter 3, which explains how to use the compiler and interpreter. This should get you started.

Chapters 11 and 12 are the places to head if you are interested in writing network or web-based applications and services. Networking remains one of the more interesting and important parts of Java.

Chapter 10 discusses Java’s graphics features and component architecture. You should read this if you are interested in writing desktop graphical Java applications.

Chapter 13 discusses how to stay on top of changes to the Java language itself, regardless of your particular focus.” (B086L2NYWR)

Online Resources

“There are many online sources for information about Java.

Oracle’s official website for Java topics is https://oreil.ly/Lo8QZ; look here for the software, updates, and Java releases. This is where you’ll find the reference implementation of the JDK, which includes the compiler, the interpreter, and other tools.

Oracle also maintains the OpenJDK site. This is the primary open source version of Java and the associated tools. We’ll be using the OpenJDK for all the examples in this book.

You should also visit O’Reilly’s site at http://oreilly.com/. There you’ll find information about other O’Reilly books for both Java and a growing array of other topics. You should also check out the online learning and conference options — O’Reilly is a real champion for education in all its forms.

And of course, you can check the home page for Learning Java!” (B086L2NYWR)

Conventions Used in This Book

“The font conventions used in this book are quite simple.

Italic is used for:

Pathnames, filenames, and program names

Internet addresses, such as domain names and URLs

New terms where they are defined

Program names, compilers, interpreters, utilities, and commands

Threads

Constant width is used for:

Anything that might appear in a Java program, including method names, variable names, and class names

Tags that might appear in an HTML or XML document

Keywords, objects, and environment variables

Constant width bold is used for:

Text that is typed by the user on the command line or in a dialog

Constant width italic is used for:

Replaceable items in code

In the main body of text, we always use a pair of empty parentheses after a method name to distinguish methods from variables and other creatures.

In the Java source listings, we follow the coding conventions most frequently used in the Java community. Class names begin with capital letters; variable and method names begin with lowercase. All the letters in the names of constants are capitalized. We don’t use underscores to separate words in a long name; following common practice, we capitalize individual words (after the first) and run the words together. For example: thisIsAVariable, thisIsAMethod(), ThisIsAClass, and THIS_IS_A_CONSTANT. Also, note that we differentiate between static and nonstatic methods when we refer to them. Unlike some books, we never write Foo.bar() to mean the bar() method of Foo unless bar() is a static method (paralleling the Java syntax in that case).” (B086L2NYWR)

Table of Contents:

(B086L2NYWR)

Preface Who Should Read This Book

New Developments New in This Edition (Java 11, 12, 13, 14)

Using This Book

Online Resources

Conventions Used in This Book

Using Code Examples

O’Reilly Online Learning

How to Contact Us

Acknowledgments

  1. A Modern Language Enter Java Java’s Origins

Growing Up

A Virtual Machine

Java Compared with Other Languages

Safety of Design Simplify, Simplify, Simplify…

Type Safety and Method Binding

Incremental Development

Dynamic Memory Management

Error Handling

Threads

Scalability

Safety of Implementation The Verifier

Class Loaders

Security Managers

Application and User-Level Security

A Java Road Map The Past: Java 1.0–Java 11

The Present: Java 14

The Future

Availability

  1. A First Application Java Tools and Environment Installing the JDK

Installing OpenJDK on Linux

Installing OpenJDK on macOS

Installing OpenJDK on Windows

Configuring IntelliJ IDEA and Creating a Project

Running the Project

Grabbing the Learning Java Examples

HelloJava Classes

The main() Method

Classes and Objects

Variables and Class Types

HelloComponent

Inheritance

The JComponent Class

Relationships and Finger-Pointing

Package and Imports

The paintComponent() Method

HelloJava2: The Sequel Instance Variables

Constructors

Events

The repaint() Method

Interfaces

Goodbye and Hello Again

  1. Tools of the Trade JDK Environment

The Java VM

Running Java Applications System Properties

The Classpath javap

Modules

The Java Compiler

Trying Java

JAR Files and Java JAR File Compression

The jar Utility

The pack200 Utility

Building Up

  1. The Java Language Text Encoding

Comments Javadoc Comments

Variables and Constants

Types Primitive Types

Reference Types

Inferring Types

Passing References

A Word About Strings

Statements and Expressions Statements

Expressions

Arrays Array Types

Array Creation and Initialization

Using Arrays

Anonymous Arrays

Multidimensional Arrays

Types and Classes and Arrays, Oh My!

  1. Objects in Java Classes Declaring and Instantiating Classes

Accessing Fields and Methods

Static Members

Methods Local Variables

Shadowing

Static Methods

Initializing Local Variables

Argument Passing and References

Wrappers for Primitive Types

Method Overloading

Object Creation Constructors

Working with Overloaded Constructors

Object Destruction Garbage Collection

Packages Importing Classes

Custom Packages

Member Visibility and Access

Compiling with Packages

Advanced Class Design Subclassing and Inheritance

Interfaces

Inner Classes

Anonymous Inner Classes

Organizing Content and Planning for Failure

  1. Error Handling and Logging Exceptions Exceptions and Error Classes

Exception Handling

Bubbling Up

Stack Traces

Checked and Unchecked Exceptions

Throwing Exceptions

try Creep

The finally Clause

try with Resources

Performance Issues

Assertions Enabling and Disabling Assertions

Using Assertions

The Logging API Overview

Logging Levels

A Simple Example

Logging Setup Properties

The Logger

Performance

Real-World Exceptions

  1. Collections and Generics Collections The Collection Interface

Collection Types

The Map Interface

Type Limitations Containers: Building a Better Mousetrap

Can Containers Be Fixed?

Enter Generics Talking About Types

“There Is No Spoon” Erasure

Raw Types

Parameterized Type Relationships Why Isn’t a List a List

Colophon

The animals on the cover of Learning Java, Fifth Edition are a Bengal tiger and her cubs. (B086L2NYWR)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
Java Software Engineering

! Template Java

See also Java Programming Language, Java Glossary, Java Bibliography, Java Reference materials

” (WP)

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
History Java Software Engineering

Java Programming Language – Invented by James Gosling of Sun Microsystems – 1995 AD – Java language

See also Java Programming Language, Java Glossary, Java Bibliography, Java Reference materials, Timeline of the History of Computers

It is not to be confused with Javanese language (LOL Haha). Not to be confused with JavaScript.

May 23, 1995 – Sun Microsystems first announces Java at the SunWorld conference.

Java programming language logo.svg
ParadigmMulti-paradigmgenericobject-oriented (class-based), imperativereflective
Designed byJames Gosling
DeveloperOracle Corporation
First appearedMay 23, 1995; 25 years ago[1]
Stable releaseJava SE 16 / March 16, 2021; 12 days ago
Typing disciplineStatic, strong, safenominativemanifest
Filename extensions.java, .class.jar
Websiteoracle.com/java/
Influenced by
CLU,[2] Simula67,[2] LISP,[2] SmallTalk,[2] Ada 83C++,[3] C#,[4] Eiffel,[5] Mesa,[6] Modula-3,[7] Oberon,[8] Objective-C,[9] UCSD Pascal,[10][11] Object Pascal[12]
Influenced
Ada 2005BeanShellC#Chapel,[13] ClojureECMAScriptFantomGambas,[14] GroovyHack,[15] HaxeJ#KotlinPHPPythonScalaSeed7ValaJavaScript
 Java Programming at Wikibooks

Java is a class-basedobject-oriented programming language that is designed to have as few implementation dependencies as possible. It is a general-purpose programming language intended to let application developers write once, run anywhere (WORA),[16] meaning that compiled Java code can run on all platforms that support Java without the need for recompilation.[17] Java applications are typically compiled to bytecode that can run on any Java virtual machine (JVM) regardless of the underlying computer architecture. The syntax of Java is similar to C and C++, but has fewer low-level facilities than either of them. The Java runtime provides dynamic capabilities (such as reflection and runtime code modification) that are typically not available in traditional compiled languages. As of 2019, Java was one of the most popular programming languages in use according to GitHub,[18][19] particularly for client-server web applications, with a reported 9 million developers.[20]” (WP)

Java was originally developed by James Gosling at Sun Microsystems (which has since been acquired by Oracle) and released in 1995 as a core component of Sun Microsystems’ Java platform. The original and reference implementation Java compilers, virtual machines, and class libraries were originally released by Sun under proprietary licenses. As of May 2007, in compliance with the specifications of the Java Community Process, Sun had relicensed most of its Java technologies under the GNU General Public License. Oracle offers its own HotSpot Java Virtual Machine, however the official reference implementation is the OpenJDK JVM which is free open source software and used by most developers and is the default JVM for almost all Linux distributions.

As of March 2021, the latest version is Java 16, with Java 11, a currently supported long-term support (LTS) version, released on September 25, 2018. Oracle released the last zero-cost public update for the legacy version Java 8 LTS in January 2019 for commercial use, although it will otherwise still support Java 8 with public updates for personal use indefinitely. Other vendors have begun to offer zero-cost builds of OpenJDK 8 and 11 that are still receiving security and other upgrades.

Oracle (and others) highly recommend uninstalling outdated versions of Java because of serious risks due to unresolved security issues.[21] Since Java 9, 10, 12, 13, 14, and 15 are no longer supported, Oracle advises its users to immediately transition to the latest version (currently Java 16) or an LTS release.

History

See also: Java (software platform) § History Duke, the Java mascot

James Gosling, the creator of Java, in 2008

The TIOBE programming language popularity index graph from 2002 to 2018. Java was steadily on the top from mid-2015 to early 2020.

James Gosling, Mike Sheridan, and Patrick Naughton initiated the Java language project in June 1991.[22] Java was originally designed for interactive television, but it was too advanced for the digital cable television industry at the time.[23] The language was initially called Oak after an oak tree that stood outside Gosling’s office. Later the project went by the name Green and was finally renamed Java, from Java coffee, a type of coffee from Indonesia.[24] Gosling designed Java with a C/C++-style syntax that system and application programmers would find familiar.[25]

Sun Microsystems released the first public implementation as Java 1.0 in 1996.[26] It promised Write Once, Run Anywhere (WORA) functionality, providing no-cost run-times on popular platforms. Fairly secure and featuring configurable security, it allowed network- and file-access restrictions. Major web browsers soon incorporated the ability to run Java applets within web pages, and Java quickly became popular. The Java 1.0 compiler was re-written in Java by Arthur van Hoff to comply strictly with the Java 1.0 language specification.[27] With the advent of Java 2 (released initially as J2SE 1.2 in December 1998 – 1999), new versions had multiple configurations built for different types of platforms. J2EE included technologies and APIs for enterprise applications typically run in server environments, while J2ME featured APIs optimized for mobile applications. The desktop version was renamed J2SE. In 2006, for marketing purposes, Sun renamed new J2 versions as Java EEJava ME, and Java SE, respectively.

In 1997, Sun Microsystems approached the ISO/IEC JTC 1 standards body and later the Ecma International to formalize Java, but it soon withdrew from the process.[28][29][30] Java remains a de facto standard, controlled through the Java Community Process.[31] At one time, Sun made most of its Java implementations available without charge, despite their proprietary software status. Sun generated revenue from Java through the selling of licenses for specialized products such as the Java Enterprise System.

On November 13, 2006, Sun released much of its Java virtual machine (JVM) as free and open-source software (FOSS), under the terms of the GNU General Public License (GPL). On May 8, 2007, Sun finished the process, making all of its JVM’s core code available under free software/open-source distribution terms, aside from a small portion of code to which Sun did not hold the copyright.[32]

Sun’s vice-president Rich Green said that Sun’s ideal role with regard to Java was as an evangelist.[33] Following Oracle Corporation‘s acquisition of Sun Microsystems in 2009–10, Oracle has described itself as the steward of Java technology with a relentless commitment to fostering a community of participation and transparency.[34] This did not prevent Oracle from filing a lawsuit against Google shortly after that for using Java inside the Android SDK (see the Android section).

On April 2, 2010, James Gosling resigned from Oracle.[35]

In January 2016, Oracle announced that Java run-time environments based on JDK 9 will discontinue the browser plugin.[36]

Java software runs on everything from laptops to data centersgame consoles to scientific supercomputers.[37]

Java’s Origins

“The seeds of Java were planted in 1990 by Sun Microsystems patriarch and chief researcher Bill Joy. At the time, Sun was competing in a relatively small workstation market, while Microsoft was beginning its domination of the more mainstream, Intel-based PC world. When Sun missed the boat on the PC revolution, Joy retreated to Aspen, Colorado, to work on advanced research. He was committed to the idea of accomplishing complex tasks with simple software and founded the aptly named Sun Aspen Smallworks.” (B086L2NYWR)

“Of the original members of the small team of programmers assembled in Aspen, James Gosling will be remembered as the father of Java. Gosling first made a name for himself in the early 80s as the author of Gosling Emacs, the first version of the popular Emacs editor that was written in C and ran under Unix. Gosling Emacs became popular but was soon eclipsed by a free version, GNU Emacs, written by Emacs’s original designer. By that time, Gosling had moved on to design Sun’s NeWS, which briefly contended with the X Window System for control of the Unix GUI desktop in 1987. Although some people would argue that NeWS was superior to X, NeWS lost because Sun kept it proprietary and didn’t publish source code, while the primary developers of X formed the X Consortium and took the opposite approach.” (B086L2NYWR)

“Designing NeWS taught Gosling the power of integrating an expressive language with a network-aware windowing GUI. It also taught Sun that the internet programming community will ultimately refuse to accept proprietary standards, no matter how good they may be. The seeds of Java’s licensing scheme and open (if not quite “open source”) code were sown by NeWS’s failure. Gosling brought what he had learned to Bill Joy’s nascent Aspen project. In 1992, work on the project led to the founding of the Sun subsidiary FirstPerson, Inc. Its mission was to lead Sun into the world of consumer electronics.” (B086L2NYWR)

“The FirstPerson team worked on developing software for information appliances, such as cellular phones and personal digital assistants (PDAs). The goal was to enable the transfer of information and real-time applications over cheap infrared and traditional packet-based networks. Memory and bandwidth limitations dictated small, efficient code. The nature of the applications also demanded they be safe and robust. Gosling and his teammates began programming in C++, but they soon found themselves confounded by a language that was too complex, unwieldy, and insecure for the task. They decided to start from scratch, and Gosling began working on something he dubbed “C++ minus minus.””(B086L2NYWR)

“With the foundering of the Apple Newton (Apple’s earliest handheld computer), it became apparent that the PDA’s ship had not yet come in, so Sun shifted FirstPerson’s efforts to interactive TV (ITV). The programming language of choice for ITV set-top boxes was to be the near ancestor of Java, a language called Oak. Even with its elegance and ability to provide safe interactivity, Oak could not salvage the lost cause of ITV at that time. Customers didn’t want it, and Sun soon abandoned the concept.” (B086L2NYWR)

“At that time, Joy and Gosling got together to decide on a new strategy for their innovative language. It was 1993, and the explosion of interest in the web presented a new opportunity. Oak was small, safe, architecture-independent, and object-oriented. As it happens, these are also some of the requirements for a universal, internet-savvy programming language. Sun quickly changed focus, and, with a little retooling, Oak became Java.” (B086L2NYWR)

Java Growing Up

“It wouldn’t be an overstatement to say that Java (and its developer-focused bundle, the Java Development Kit, or JDK) caught on like wildfire. Even before its first official release when Java was still a nonproduct, nearly every major industry player had jumped on the Java bandwagon. Java licensees included Microsoft, Intel, IBM, and virtually all major hardware and software vendors. However, even with all this support, Java took a lot of knocks and experienced some growing pains during its first few years.” (B086L2NYWR)

“A series of breach of contract and antitrust lawsuits between Sun and Microsoft over the distribution of Java and its use in Internet Explorer hampered its deployment on the world’s most common desktop operating system — Windows. Microsoft’s involvement with Java also become one focus of a larger federal lawsuit over serious anticompetitive practices at the company, with court testimony revealing concerted efforts by the software giant to undermine Java by introducing incompatibilities in its version of the language. Meanwhile, Microsoft introduced its own Java-derived language called C# (C-sharp) as part of its .NET initiative and dropped Java from inclusion in Windows. C# has gone on to become a very good language in its own right, enjoying more innovation in recent years than has Java.” (B086L2NYWR)

“But Java continues to spread on a wide variety of platforms. As we begin looking at the Java architecture, you’ll see that much of what is exciting about Java comes from the self-contained, virtual machine environment in which Java applications run. Java was carefully designed so that this supporting architecture can be implemented either in software, for existing computer platforms, or in customized hardware. Hardware implementations of Java are used in some smart cards and other embedded systems. You can even buy “wearable” devices, such as rings and dog tags, that have Java interpreters embedded in them. Software implementations of Java are available for all modern computer platforms down to portable computing devices. Today, an offshoot of the Java platform is the basis for Google’s Android operating system that powers billions of phones and other mobile devices.” (B086L2NYWR)

“In 2010, Oracle corporation bought Sun Microsystems and became the steward of the Java language. In a somewhat rocky start to its tenure, Oracle sued Google over its use of the Java language in Android and lost. In July of 2011, Oracle released Java SE 7, a significant Java release including a new I/O package in 2017. Java 9 introduced modules to address some long-standing issues with the classpath and the growing size of the JDK itself. Java 9 also kicked off a rapid update process leading to Java 11 being the current version with long-term support. (More on these and other versions in “A Java Road Map”.) Oracle continues to lead Java development; however, they have also bifurcated the Java world by moving the main Java deployment environment to a costly commercial license and offering a free subsidiary OpenJDK option that retains the accessibility many developers love and expect.” (B086L2NYWR)

Principles

There were five primary goals in the creation of the Java language:[17]

  1. It must be simple, object-oriented, and familiar.
  2. It must be robust and secure.
  3. It must be architecture-neutral and portable.
  4. It must execute with high performance.
  5. It must be interpretedthreaded, and dynamic.

Versions

Main article: Java version history

As of September 2020, Java 8 and 11 are supported as Long Term Support (LTS) versions, and one later non-LTS version is supported.[38] Major release versions of Java, along with their release dates:

VersionDate
JDK Beta1995
JDK1.0January 23, 1996[39]
JDK 1.1February 19, 1997
J2SE 1.2December 8, 1998
J2SE 1.3May 8, 2000
J2SE 1.4February 6, 2002
J2SE 5.0September 30, 2004
Java SE 6December 11, 2006
Java SE 7July 28, 2011
Java SE 8March 18, 2014
Java SE 9September 21, 2017
Java SE 10March 20, 2018
Java SE 11September 25, 2018[40]
Java SE 12March 19, 2019
Java SE 13September 17, 2019
Java SE 14March 17, 2020
Java SE 15September 15, 2020[41]
Java SE 16March 16, 2021

Editions

See also: Free Java implementations § Class library

Java platform editions
Java CardJava ME (Micro)

Java SE (Standard)

Jakarta EE (Enterprise)

JavaFX (bundled in JRE from 8 to 10 but separately for JavaFX 1.x, 2.x and again since 11)

PersonalJava (Discontinued)

Sun has defined and supports four editions of Java targeting different application environments and segmented many of its APIs so that they belong to one of the platforms. The platforms are:

The classes in the Java APIs are organized into separate groups called packages. Each package contains a set of related interfaces, classes, subpackages and exceptions.

Sun also provided an edition called Personal Java that has been superseded by later, standards-based Java ME configuration-profile pairings.

Execution system

Java JVM and bytecode

Main articles: Java (software platform) and Java virtual machine

One design goal of Java is portability, which means that programs written for the Java platform must run similarly on any combination of hardware and operating system with adequate run time support. This is achieved by compiling the Java language code to an intermediate representation called Java bytecode, instead of directly to architecture-specific machine code. Java bytecode instructions are analogous to machine code, but they are intended to be executed by a virtual machine (VM) written specifically for the host hardware. End users commonly use a Java Runtime Environment (JRE) installed on their machine for standalone Java applications, or in a web browser for Java applets.

Standard libraries provide a generic way to access host-specific features such as graphics, threading, and networking.

The use of universal bytecode makes porting simple. However, the overhead of interpreting bytecode into machine instructions made interpreted programs almost always run more slowly than native executablesJust-in-time (JIT) compilers that compile byte-codes to machine code during runtime were introduced from an early stage. Java itself is platform-independent and is adapted to the particular platform it is to run on by a Java virtual machine (JVM) for it, which translates the Java bytecode into the platform’s machine language.[46]

Performance

Main article: Java performance

Programs written in Java have a reputation for being slower and requiring more memory than those written in C++ .[47][48] However, Java programs’ execution speed improved significantly with the introduction of just-in-time compilation in 1997/1998 for Java 1.1,[49] the addition of language features supporting better code analysis (such as inner classes, the StringBuilder class, optional assertions, etc.), and optimizations in the Java virtual machine, such as HotSpot becoming Sun’s default JVM in 2000. With Java 1.5, the performance was improved with the addition of the java.util.concurrent package, including lock free implementations of the ConcurrentMaps and other multi-core collections, and it was improved further with Java 1.6.

Non-JVM

Some platforms offer direct hardware support for Java; there are micro controllers that can run Java bytecode in hardware instead of a software Java virtual machine,[50] and some ARM-based processors could have hardware support for executing Java bytecode through their Jazelle option, though support has mostly been dropped in current implementations of ARM.

Automatic memory management

Java uses an automatic garbage collector to manage memory in the object lifecycle. The programmer determines when objects are created, and the Java runtime is responsible for recovering the memory once objects are no longer in use. Once no references to an object remain, the unreachable memory becomes eligible to be freed automatically by the garbage collector. Something similar to a memory leak may still occur if a programmer’s code holds a reference to an object that is no longer needed, typically when objects that are no longer needed are stored in containers that are still in use. If methods for a non-existent object are called, a null pointer exception is thrown.[51][52]

One of the ideas behind Java’s automatic memory management model is that programmers can be spared the burden of having to perform manual memory management. In some languages, memory for the creation of objects is implicitly allocated on the stack or explicitly allocated and deallocated from the heap. In the latter case, the responsibility of managing memory resides with the programmer. If the program does not deallocate an object, a memory leak occurs. If the program attempts to access or deallocate memory that has already been deallocated, the result is undefined and difficult to predict, and the program is likely to become unstable or crash. This can be partially remedied by the use of smart pointers, but these add overhead and complexity. Note that garbage collection does not prevent logical memory leaks, i.e. those where the memory is still referenced but never used.

Garbage collection may happen at any time. Ideally, it will occur when a program is idle. It is guaranteed to be triggered if there is insufficient free memory on the heap to allocate a new object; this can cause a program to stall momentarily. Explicit memory management is not possible in Java.

Java does not support C/C++ style pointer arithmetic, where object addresses can be arithmetically manipulated (e.g. by adding or subtracting an offset). This allows the garbage collector to relocate referenced objects and ensures type safety and security.

As in C++ and some other object-oriented languages, variables of Java’s primitive data types are either stored directly in fields (for objects) or on the stack (for methods) rather than on the heap, as is commonly true for non-primitive data types (but see escape analysis). This was a conscious decision by Java’s designers for performance reasons.

Java contains multiple types of garbage collectors. Since Java 9, HotSpot uses the Garbage First Garbage Collector (G1GC) as the default.[53] However, there are also several other garbage collectors that can be used to manage the heap. For most applications in Java, G1GC is sufficient. Previously, the Parallel Garbage Collector was used in Java 8.

Having solved the memory management problem does not relieve the programmer of the burden of handling properly other kinds of resources, like network or database connections, file handles, etc., especially in the presence of exceptions.

Syntax

Main article: Java syntax

Dependency graph of the Java Core classes (created with jdeps and Gephi)

The syntax of Java is largely influenced by C++ and C. Unlike C++, which combines the syntax for structured, generic, and object-oriented programming, Java was built almost exclusively as an object-oriented language.[17] All code is written inside classes, and every data item is an object, with the exception of the primitive data types, (i.e. integers, floating-point numbers, boolean values, and characters), which are not objects for performance reasons. Java reuses some popular aspects of C++ (such as the printf method).

Unlike C++, Java does not support operator overloading[54] or multiple inheritance for classes, though multiple inheritance is supported for interfaces.[55]

Java uses comments similar to those of C++. There are three different styles of comments: a single line style marked with two slashes (//), a multiple line style opened with /* and closed with */, and the Javadoc commenting style opened with /** and closed with */. The Javadoc style of commenting allows the user to run the Javadoc executable to create documentation for the program and can be read by some integrated development environments (IDEs) such as Eclipse to allow developers to access documentation within the IDE.

Hello world example

The traditional Hello world program can be written in Java as:[56]

public class HelloWorldApp {
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        System.out.println("Hello World!"); // Prints the string to the console.
    }
}

All source files must be named after the public class they contain, appending the suffix .java, for example, HelloWorldApp.java. It must first be compiled into bytecode, using a Java compiler, producing a file with the .class suffix (HelloWorldApp.class, in this case). Only then can it be executed or launched. The Java source file may only contain one public class, but it can contain multiple classes with a non-public access modifier and any number of public inner classes. When the source file contains multiple classes, it is necessary to make one class (introduced by the class keyword) public (preceded by the public keyword) and name the source file with that public class name.

A class that is not declared public may be stored in any .java file. The compiler will generate a class file for each class defined in the source file. The name of the class file is the name of the class, with .class appended. For class file generation, anonymous classes are treated as if their name were the concatenation of the name of their enclosing class, a $, and an integer.

The keyword public denotes that a method can be called from code in other classes, or that a class may be used by classes outside the class hierarchy. The class hierarchy is related to the name of the directory in which the .java file is located. This is called an access level modifier. Other access level modifiers include the keywords private (a method that can only be accessed in the same class) and protected (which allows code from the same package to access). If a piece of code attempts to access private methods or protected methods, the JVM will throw a SecurityException

The keyword static[18] in front of a method indicates a static method, which is associated only with the class and not with any specific instance of that class. Only static methods can be invoked without a reference to an object. Static methods cannot access any class members that are not also static. Methods that are not designated static are instance methods and require a specific instance of a class to operate.

The keyword void indicates that the main method does not return any value to the caller. If a Java program is to exit with an error code, it must call System.exit() explicitly.

The method name main is not a keyword in the Java language. It is simply the name of the method the Java launcher calls to pass control to the program. Java classes that run in managed environments such as applets and Enterprise JavaBeans do not use or need a main() method. A Java program may contain multiple classes that have main methods, which means that the VM needs to be explicitly told which class to launch from.

The main method must accept an array of String objects. By convention, it is referenced as args although any other legal identifier name can be used. Since Java 5, the main method can also use variable arguments, in the form of public static void main(String... args), allowing the main method to be invoked with an arbitrary number of String arguments. The effect of this alternate declaration is semantically identical (to the args parameter which is still an array of String objects), but it allows an alternative syntax for creating and passing the array.

The Java launcher launches Java by loading a given class (specified on the command line or as an attribute in a JAR) and starting its public static void main(String[]) method. Stand-alone programs must declare this method explicitly. The String[] args parameter is an array of String objects containing any arguments passed to the class. The parameters to main are often passed by means of a command line.

Printing is part of a Java standard library: The System class defines a public static field called out. The out object is an instance of the PrintStream class and provides many methods for printing data to standard out, including println(String) which also appends a new line to the passed string.

The string "Hello World!" is automatically converted to a String object by the compiler.

Example with methods

// This is an example of a single line comment using two slashes

/*
 * This is an example of a multiple line comment using the slash and asterisk.
 * This type of comment can be used to hold a lot of information or deactivate
 * code, but it is very important to remember to close the comment.
 */

package fibsandlies;

import java.util.Map;
import java.util.HashMap;

/**
 * This is an example of a Javadoc comment; Javadoc can compile documentation
 * from this text. Javadoc comments must immediately precede the class, method,
 * or field being documented.
 * @author Wikipedia Volunteers
 */
public class FibCalculator extends Fibonacci implements Calculator {
    private static Map<Integer, Integer> memoized = new HashMap<>();

    /*
     * The main method written as follows is used by the JVM as a starting point
     * for the program.
     */
    public static void main(String[] args) {
        memoized.put(1, 1);
        memoized.put(2, 1);
        System.out.println(fibonacci(12)); // Get the 12th Fibonacci number and print to console
    }

    /**
     * An example of a method written in Java, wrapped in a class.
     * Given a non-negative number FIBINDEX, returns
     * the Nth Fibonacci number, where N equals FIBINDEX.
     * 
     * @param fibIndex The index of the Fibonacci number
     * @return the Fibonacci number
     */
    public static int fibonacci(int fibIndex) {
        if (memoized.containsKey(fibIndex)) return memoized.get(fibIndex);
        else {
            int answer = fibonacci(fibIndex - 1) + fibonacci(fibIndex - 2);
            memoized.put(fibIndex, answer);
            return answer;
        }
    }
}

Special classes

Applet

Main article: Java applet

Java applets were programs that were embedded in other applications, typically in a Web page displayed in a web browser. The Java applet API is now deprecated since Java 8 in 2017.[57][58]

Servlet

Main article: Java servlet

Java servlet technology provides Web developers with a simple, consistent mechanism for extending the functionality of a Web server and for accessing existing business systems. Servlets are server-side Java EE components that generate responses to requests from clients. Most of the time, this means generating HTML pages in response to HTTP requests, although there are a number of other standard servlet classes available, for example for WebSocket communication.

The Java servlet API has to some extent been superseded (but still used under the hood) by two standard Java technologies for web services:

Typical implementations of these APIs on Application Servers or Servlet Containers use a standard servlet for handling all interactions with the HTTP requests and responses that delegate to the web service methods for the actual business logic.

JavaServer Pages

Main article: JavaServer Pages

JavaServer Pages (JSP) are server-side Java EE components that generate responses, typically HTML pages, to HTTP requests from clients. JSPs embed Java code in an HTML page by using the special delimiters <% and %>. A JSP is compiled to a Java servlet, a Java application in its own right, the first time it is accessed. After that, the generated servlet creates the response.[59]

Swing application

Main article: Swing (Java)

Swing is a graphical user interface library for the Java SE platform. It is possible to specify a different look and feel through the pluggable look and feel system of Swing. Clones of WindowsGTK+, and Motif are supplied by Sun. Apple also provides an Aqua look and feel for macOS. Where prior implementations of these looks and feels may have been considered lacking, Swing in Java SE 6 addresses this problem by using more native GUI widget drawing routines of the underlying platforms.[60]

JavaFX application

Main article: JavaFX

JavaFX is a software platform for creating and delivering desktop applications, as well as rich web applications that can run across a wide variety of devices. JavaFX is intended to replace Swing as the standard GUI library for Java SE, but since JDK 11 JavaFX has not been in the core JDK and instead in a separate module.[61] JavaFX has support for desktop computers and web browsers on Microsoft WindowsLinux, and macOS. JavaFX does not have support for native OS look and feels.[62]

Generics

Main article: Generics in Java

In 2004, generics were added to the Java language, as part of J2SE 5.0. Prior to the introduction of generics, each variable declaration had to be of a specific type. For container classes, for example, this is a problem because there is no easy way to create a container that accepts only specific types of objects. Either the container operates on all subtypes of a class or interface, usually Object, or a different container class has to be created for each contained class. Generics allow compile-time type checking without having to create many container classes, each containing almost identical code. In addition to enabling more efficient code, certain runtime exceptions are prevented from occurring, by issuing compile-time errors. If Java prevented all runtime type errors (ClassCastExceptions) from occurring, it would be type safe.

In 2016, the type system of Java was proven unsound.[63]

Criticism

Main article: Criticism of Java

Criticisms directed at Java include the implementation of generics,[64] speed,[65] the handling of unsigned numbers,[66] the implementation of floating-point arithmetic,[67] and a history of security vulnerabilities in the primary Java VM implementation HotSpot.[68]

Class libraries

Main article: Java Class Library

The Java Class Library is the standard library, developed to support application development in Java. It is controlled by Oracle in cooperation with others through the Java Community Process program.[69] Companies or individuals participating in this process can influence the design and development of the APIs. This process has been a subject of controversy during the 2010s.[70] The class library contains features such as:

Documentation

Main article: Javadoc

Javadoc is a comprehensive documentation system, created by Sun Microsystems. It provides developers with an organized system for documenting their code. Javadoc comments have an extra asterisk at the beginning, i.e. the delimiters are /** and */, whereas the normal multi-line comments in Java are set off with the delimiters /* and */, and single-line comments start off the line with //.[74]

Implementations

See also: Free Java implementations

Oracle Corporation is the current owner of the official implementation of the Java SE platform, following their acquisition of Sun Microsystems on January 27, 2010. This implementation is based on the original implementation of Java by Sun. The Oracle implementation is available for Microsoft Windows (still works for XP, while only later versions are currently officially supported), macOSLinux, and Solaris. Because Java lacks any formal standardization recognized by Ecma International, ISO/IEC, ANSI, or other third-party standards organizations, the Oracle implementation is the de facto standard.

The Oracle implementation is packaged into two different distributions: The Java Runtime Environment (JRE) which contains the parts of the Java SE platform required to run Java programs and is intended for end users, and the Java Development Kit (JDK), which is intended for software developers and includes development tools such as the Java compilerJavadocJar, and a debugger. Oracle has also released GraalVM, a high performance Java dynamic compiler and interpreter.

OpenJDK is another notable Java SE implementation that is licensed under the GNU GPL. The implementation started when Sun began releasing the Java source code under the GPL. As of Java SE 7, OpenJDK is the official Java reference implementation.

The goal of Java is to make all implementations of Java compatible. Historically, Sun’s trademark license for usage of the Java brand insists that all implementations be compatible. This resulted in a legal dispute with Microsoft after Sun claimed that the Microsoft implementation did not support RMI or JNI and had added platform-specific features of their own. Sun sued in 1997, and, in 2001, won a settlement of US$20 million, as well as a court order enforcing the terms of the license from Sun.[75] As a result, Microsoft no longer ships Java with Windows.

Platform-independent Java is essential to Java EE, and an even more rigorous validation is required to certify an implementation. This environment enables portable server-side applications.

Use outside the Java platform

The Java programming language requires the presence of a software platform in order for compiled programs to be executed.

Oracle supplies the Java platform for use with Java. The Android SDK is an alternative software platform, used primarily for developing Android applications with its own GUI system.

Android

The Android operating system makes extensive use of Java-related technology

The Java language is a key pillar in Android, an open source mobile operating system. Although Android, built on the Linux kernel, is written largely in C, the Android SDK uses the Java language as the basis for Android applications but does not use any of its standard GUI, SE, ME or other established Java standards.[76] The bytecode language supported by the Android SDK is incompatible with Java bytecode and runs on its own virtual machine, optimized for low-memory devices such as smartphones and tablet computers. Depending on the Android version, the bytecode is either interpreted by the Dalvik virtual machine or compiled into native code by the Android Runtime.

Android does not provide the full Java SE standard library, although the Android SDK does include an independent implementation of a large subset of it. It supports Java 6 and some Java 7 features, offering an implementation compatible with the standard library (Apache Harmony).

Controversy

See also: Oracle America, Inc. v. Google, Inc.

The use of Java-related technology in Android led to a legal dispute between Oracle and Google. On May 7, 2012, a San Francisco jury found that if APIs could be copyrighted, then Google had infringed Oracle’s copyrights by the use of Java in Android devices.[77] District Judge William Alsup ruled on May 31, 2012, that APIs cannot be copyrighted,[78] but this was reversed by the United States Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in May 2014.[79] On May 26, 2016, the district court decided in favor of Google, ruling the copyright infringement of the Java API in Android constitutes fair use.[80] In March 2018, this ruling was overturned by the Appeals Court, which sent down the case of determining the damages to federal court in San Francisco.[81] Google filed a petition for writ of certiorari with the Supreme Court of the United States in January 2019 to challenge the two rulings that were made by the Appeals Court in Oracle’s favor.[82]” (WP)

See also

Comparison of Java with other languages

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Works cited

External links

Wikiversity has learning resources about Java Platform, Enterprise Edition/Java EE Tutorial
  •  The dictionary definition of Java at Wiktionary
  •  Media related to Java at Wikimedia Commons
  •  Java at Wikibooks
  •  Learning materials related to Java at Wikiversity

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