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Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, Gang of Four (GoF), 1994

See also: Head First Design Patterns: Building Extensible and Maintainable Object-Oriented Software, 2nd Edition, by Eric Freeman and Elisabeth Robson, 2021

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Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, 1st Edition, by Gamma Erich, Helm Richard, Johnson Ralph, Vlissides John

Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software (1994) is a software engineering book describing software design patterns. The book was written by Erich Gamma, Richard Helm, Ralph Johnson, and John Vlissides, with a foreword by Grady Booch. The book is divided into two parts, with the first two chapters exploring the capabilities and pitfalls of object-oriented programming, and the remaining chapters describing 23 classic software design patterns. The book includes examples in C++ and Smalltalk.” (WP)

“It has been influential to the field of software engineering and is regarded as an important source for object-oriented design theory and practice. More than 500,000 copies have been sold in English and in 13 other languages. The authors are often referred to as the Gang of Four (GoF).[1]” (WP)

Capturing a wealth of experience about the design of object-oriented software, four top-notch designers present a catalog of simple and succinct solutions to commonly occurring design problems. Previously undocumented, these 23 patterns allow designers to create more flexible, elegant, and ultimately reusable designs without having to rediscover the design solutions themselves.

The authors begin by describing what patterns are and how they can help you design object-oriented software. They then go on to systematically name, explain, evaluate, and catalog recurring designs in object-oriented systems. With Design Patterns as your guide, you will learn how these important patterns fit into the software development process, and how you can leverage them to solve your own design problems most efficiently.

Each pattern describes the circumstances in which it is applicable, when it can be applied in view of other design constraints, and the consequences and trade-offs of using the pattern within a larger design. All patterns are compiled from real systems and are based on real-world examples. Each pattern also includes code that demonstrates how it may be implemented in object-oriented programming languages like C++ or Smalltalk.

Editorial Reviews

Design Patterns is a modern classic in the literature of object-oriented development, offering timeless and elegant solutions to common problems in software design. It describes patterns for managing object creation, composing objects into larger structures, and coordinating control flow between objects. The book provides numerous examples where using composition rather than inheritance can improve the reusability and flexibility of code. Note, though, that it’s not a tutorial but a catalog that you can use to find an object-oriented design pattern that’s appropriate for the needs of your particular application–a selection for virtuoso programmers who appreciate (or require) consistent, well-engineered object-oriented designs

Book Details

  • ASIN: B000SEIBB8
  • Publisher: Addison-Wesley Professional; 1st edition (October 31, 1994)
  • Publication date: October 31, 1994
  • Print length: 568 pages


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Head First Design Patterns

See also: Design Patterns: Elements of Reusable Object-Oriented Software, Gang of Four (GoF), 1994

Fair Use Source: B08P3X99QP (HFDP)

See: Head First Design Patterns: Building Extensible and Maintainable Object-Oriented Software, 2nd Edition, by Eric Freeman and Elisabeth Robson, Kathy Sierra, and Bert Bates, 2021

What will you learn from this book?

You know you don’t want to reinvent the wheel, so you look to Design Patterns: the lessons learned by those who’ve faced the same software design problems. With Design Patterns, you get to take advantage of the best practices and experience of others so you can spend your time on something more challenging. Something more fun. This book shows you the patterns that matter, when to use them and why, how to apply them to your own designs, and the object-oriented design principles on which they’re based. Join hundreds of thousands of developers who’ve improved their object-oriented design skills through Head First Design Patterns.

What’s so special about this book?

If you’ve read a Head First book, you know what to expect: a visually rich format designed for the way your brain works. With Head First Design Patterns, 2E you’ll learn design principles and patterns in a way that won’t put you to sleep, so you can get out there to solve software design problems and speak the language of patterns with others on your team.

Book Details

  • ASIN: B08P3X99QP
  • ISBN: 978-1-492-07800-5
  • Publisher: O’Reilly Media; 2nd edition (November 24, 2020)
  • Publication date: November 24, 2020
  • Print length: 1156 pages
  • Printing History: October 2004: First edition
  • December 2020: Second edition
  • Release History: 2020-11-10 First release


“To the Gang of Four, whose insight and expertise in capturing and communicating Design Patterns has changed the face of software design forever, and bettered the lives of developers throughout the world. But seriously, when are we going to see a second edition? After all, it’s been only twenty-five years.” (HFDP)

” (HFDP)


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! Template Design Pattern

” (GoF)

” (WP)


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History Software Engineering

Collaborative Programming and Software Development – 1999 AD

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Collaborative Software Development

“Despite the reputation of software developers as solitary, introverted people, much of their time is spent socializing and collaborating with colleagues and like-skilled experts to solve common problems or work on common projects. By the late 1990s, a combination of factors led to the emergence of collaborative development environments (CDEs), wherein geographically dispersed developers, some connected by corporations, others simply by challenges, would collaborate in virtual space using a variety of features to advance open source projects and develop code.

As software development efforts for web-based platforms grew, so did the need for greater productivity and innovation in meeting the growing demands of these systems and their ever-changing requirements. CDEs evolved in part to meet these demands and to help coders realize the network effects of leveraging expertise and social engagement beyond one’s own community or organization. The company that led the charge in this era was SourceForge®, a free service for software developers to manage their code development that came on the scene in 1999. A number of other platforms entered the market soon after.

Collaborative software development has dramatically accelerated the pace of developing open source projects. Without these capabilities, the rate of evolution would have been much slower, and without the benefit of as many perspectives and diverse inputs, the quality would not be nearly so high. One example of this is the Apache Software Foundation’s big data software stack, including Hadoop, Apache Spark, and others—which was collaboratively developed by programmers at dozens of different corporations and universities. In large part, the success and vibrancy of these projects is measured not just by their adoption but also by the number of active developers who are improving the code base.

Over time, CDEs incorporated additional features into their platforms beyond simple version control, including threaded discussion forums, calendaring and scheduling, electronic document routing and workflow, projects dashboards, and configuration control of shared artifacts, among others.”

SEE ALSO: GNU Manifesto (1985), Wikipedia (2001)

Services like SourceForge and GitHub make it possible for many people to work on the same piece of software at the same time, dramatically increasing the rate of software innovation.

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Brown, A. W., and Grady Booch. “Collaborative Development Environments.” Advances in Computers 53 (June 2003): 1–29.

History Software Engineering

Delphi Object Pascal IDE and Compiler Invented by Anders Hejlsberg – 1995 AD

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Delphi is a software product that uses the Object Pascal programming language and provides an integrated development environment (IDE) for rapid application development of desktop, mobileweb, and console software,[1] currently developed and maintained by Embarcadero Technologies. Delphi evolved from Borland’s “Turbo Pascal for Windows”, itself an evolution with Windows support from Borland’s Turbo Pascal and Borland Pascal with Objects, very fast 16-bit native-code MS-DOS compilers with their own sophisticated integrated development environment (IDE) and textual user interface toolkit for DOS (Turbo Vision). Early Turbo Pascal (for MS-DOS) was written in a dialect of the Pascal programming language; in later versions support for objects was added, and it was named Object Pascal.

Delphi’s compilers generate native code for Microsoft WindowsmacOSiOSAndroid and Linux (x64).[4][5][6]

Delphi includes a code editor, a visual designer, an integrated debugger, a source code control component, and support for third-party plugins. The code editor features Code Insight (code completion), Error Insight (real-time error-checking), and refactoring. The visual forms designer has the option of using either the Visual Component Library (VCL) for pure Windows development or the FireMonkey (FMX) framework for cross-platform development. Database support is a key feature. Delphi is known for its fast compilation speed.

Delphi was originally developed by Borland as a rapid application development tool for Windows as the successor of Turbo Pascal. Delphi added full object-oriented programming to the existing language, and the language has grown to support generics, anonymous methodsclosures, and native Component Object Model (COM) support.

Delphi was originally one of many codenames of a pre-release development tool project at Borland. Borland developer Danny Thorpe suggested the Delphi codename in reference to the Oracle at Delphi. One of the design goals of the product was to provide database connectivity to programmers as a key feature and a popular database package at the time was Oracle database; hence, “If you want to talk to [the] Oracle, go to Delphi”.

As development continued towards the first release, the Delphi codename gained popularity among the development team and beta testing group. However, the Borland marketing leadership preferred a functional product name over an iconic name and made preparations to release the product under the name “Borland AppBuilder”.

Shortly before the release of the Borland product in 1995, Novell AppBuilder was released, leaving Borland in need of a new product name. After much debate and many market research surveys, the Delphi codename became the Delphi product name.[2]

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History Software Engineering

Smalltalk Programming Language Invented by Alan Kay of Xerox PARC – Second ever Object-Oriented – First IDE – 1972 AD

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Smalltalk was the second ever object-oriented programming language and the first true IDE, developed by Alan Kay and others at Xerox PARC in 1972.

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See also Xerox Alto from Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC) – 1973 AD