See: Mythical Man-Month, Anniversary Edition, The: Essays On Software Engineering 2nd Edition
History in the year of:
- 2021, 2020
- 2019, 2018, 2017, 2016, 2015, 2014, 2013, 2012, 2011, 2010
- 2009, 2008, 2007, 2006, 2005, 2004, 2003, 2002, 2001, 2000
- 1999, 1998, 1997, 1996, 1995, 1994, 1993, 1992, 1991, 1990
- 1989, 1988, 1987, 1986, 1985, 1984, 1983, 1982, 1981, 1980
- 1979, 1978, 1977, 1976, 1975, 1974, 1973, 1972, 1971, 1970
- 1969, 1968, 1967, 1966, 1965, 1964, 1963, 1962, 1961, 1960
- 1959, 1958, 1957, 1956, 1955, 1954, 1953, 1952, 1951, 1950
- 1949, 1948, 1947, 1946, 1945, 1944, 1943, 1942, 1941, 1940
- 1939, 1938, 1937, 1936, 1935, 1934, 1933, 1932, 1931, 1930
c. 2500 BC – Sumerian Abacus
c. 700 BC – Scytale
c. 150 BC – Antikythera Mechanism
c. 60 – Programmable Robot
c. 850 – On Deciphering Cryptographic Messages
c. 1470 – Cipher Disk
1621 – Slide Rule
1703 – Binary Arithmetic
1770 – The “Mechanical Turk”
1792 – Optical Telegraph
1801 – The Jacquard Loom
1822 – The Difference Engine
1833 – Michael Faraday discovered silver sulfide became a better conductor when heated
1836 – Electrical Telegraph
1843 – Fax Machine Patented
1849 to early 1900s – Silicon Valley After the Gold Rush
1851 – Thomas Arithmometer
1854 – Boolean Algebra
1870 – Mitsubishi founded
1874 – Baudot Code
1874 – Semiconductor Diode conceived of
1876 – Ericsson Corporation founded in Sweden
1885 – Stanford University
1891 – Strowger Step-by-Step Switch
1890s to 1930s – Radio Engineering
Early 1900s – Electrical Engineering
1904 – “Diode” or Two-Element Amplifier actually invented
1904 – Three-Element Amplifier or “Triode”
1906 – Vacuum Tube or “Audion”
1907 – Lee DeForest coins the term “radio” to refer to wireless transmission when he formed his DeForest Radio Telephone Company
1909 – Charles Herrold in San Jose started first radio station in USA with regularly scheduled programming, including songs, using an arc transmitter of his own design. Herrold was one of Stanford’s earliest students and founded his own College of Wireless and Engineering in San Jose
1910 – Radio Broadcasting business pioneered by Lee DeForest with broadcast from New York of a live performance by Italian tenor Enrico Caruso
1914 – Floating-Point Numbers
1917 – Vernam Cipher
1920 – Rossum’s Universal Robots
1927 – Fritz Lang’s Metropolis
1927 – First LED
1928 – Electronic Speech Synthesis
1930 – The Enigma Machine
1931 – Differential Analyzer
1936 – Church-Turing Thesis
1946 – Trackball
1946 – Williams Tube Random Access Memory
1947 – Actual Bug Found – First “debugging”
1947 – William Shockley’s Silicon Transistor
1948 – Curta Calculator
1948 – Manchester SSEM
1949 – Whirlwind Computer
1950 – Error-Correcting Codes (ECC)
1951 – Core Memory
1951 – Microprogramming
1952 – Computer Speech Recognition
1956 – First Disk Storage Unit
1956 – The Byte
1956 – Robby the Robot from Forbidden Planet
1957 – FORTRAN Programming Language
1957 – First Digital Image
1958 – The Bell 101 Modem
1958 – SAGE Computer Operational
1959 – IBM 1401 Computer
1959 – DEC PDP-1
1959 – Quicksort Algorithm
1960 – COBOL Programming Language
1961 – ANITA Electronic Calculator
1962 – Spacewar! Video Game
1962 – Virtual Memory
1963 – ASCII Character Encoding
1964 – RAND Tablet Computer
1964 – Teletype Model 33 ASR
1964 – BASIC Programming Language
1965 – First Liquid-Crystal Display (LCD)
1965 – Fiber Optics – Optical-Fiber
1965 – DENDRAL Artificial Intelligence (AI) Research Project
1965 – ELIZA – The First “Chatbot” – 1965
1965 – Touchscreen
1966 – Star Trek Premieres
1966 – Dynamic RAM
1967 – Object-Oriented Programming
1967 – First ATM Machine
1967 – Head-Mounted Display
1967 – Programming for Children
1967 – The Mouse
1968 – Carterfone Decision
1968 – Software Engineering
1968 – HAL 9000 Computer from 2001: A Space Odyssey
1968 – Mother of All Demos
1968 – Dot Matrix Printer – Shinshu Seiki (now called Seiko Epson Corporation) launched the world’s first mini-printer, the EP-101 (“EP” for Electronic Printer,) which was soon incorporated into many calculators
1969 – ARPANET / Internet
1969 – Digital Imaging
1969 – UNIX Operating System
1970 – Fair Credit Reporting Act
1970 – Relational Databases
1970 – Floppy Disk
1971 – Laser Printer
1971 – NP-Completeness
1971 – @Mail Electronic Mail
1971 – First Microprocessor – General-Purpose CPU – “Computer on a Chip”
1971 – First Wireless Network
1972 – C Programming Language
1972 – HP-35 Calculator
1972 – Pong Game from Atari – Nolan Bushnell
1973 – First Cell Phone Call
1973 – Xerox Alto from Xerox Palo Alto Research Center (PARC)
1974 – The first successful real-time conversation over ARPANET achieved using 2.4 kpbs LPC, between Culler-Harrison Incorporated in Goleta, California, and MIT Lincoln Laboratory in Lexington, Massachusetts.
1974 – First Personal Computer: The Altair 8800 Invented by MITS in Albuquerque, New Mexico
1975 – Colossal Cave Adventure – Text-based “Video” Game
1975 – The Shockwave Rider SciFi Book – A Prelude of the 21st Century Big Tech Police State
1975 – AI Medical Diagnosis – Artificial Intelligence in Medicine
1975 – BYTE Magazine
1975 – Homebrew Computer Club
1975 – The Mythical Man-Month
1975 – The name Epson was coined for the next generation of printers based on the EP-101 which was released to the public. (EPSON:E-P-SON: SON of Electronic Printer). Epson America Inc. was established to sell printers for Shinshu Seiki Co.
1976 – Public Key Cryptography
1976 – Acer founded
1976 – Tandem NonStop
1976 – Dr. Dobb’s Journal
1977 – RSA Encryption
1977 – Apple II Computer
1977 – Danny Cohen and Jon Postel of the USC Information Sciences Institute, and Vint Cerf of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), agree to separate IP from TCP, and create UDP for carrying real-time traffic.
1978 – First Internet Spam Message
1978 – France’s Minitel Videotext
1980 – Timex Sinclair ZX80 Computer
1980 – Flash Memory
1980 – RISC Microprocessors – Reduced Instruction Set Computer CPUs
1980 – Commercially Available Ethernet Invented by Robert Metcalfe of 3Com
1980 – Usenet
1981 – IBM Personal Computer – IBM PC
1981 – Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Email
1982 – AutoCAD
1982 – PostScript
1982 – First CGI Sequence in Feature Film – Star Trek II: The Wrath of Khan
1982 – National Geographic Moves the Pyramids – Precursor to Photoshop
1982 – TRON Movie
1982 – Home Computer Named Machine of the Year by Time Magazine
1983 – WarGames
1983 – 3-D Printing
1983 – First Laptop
1983 – Microsoft Word
1983 – Nintendo Entertainment System – Video Games
1983 – Domain Name System (DNS)
1983 – IPv4 Flag Day – TCP/IP
1984 – Text-to-Speech (TTS)
1984 – Apple Macintosh
1984 – VPL Research, Inc. – Virtual Reality (VR)
1984 – Quantum Cryptography
1984 – Verilog Language
1984 – Dell founded by Michael Dell
1984 – Cisco Systems was founded in December 1984
1985 – Connection Machine – Parallelization
1985 – NSFNET National Science Foundation “Internet”
1985 – GNU Manifesto from Richard Stallman
1985 – AFIS Stops a Serial Killer – Automated Fingerprint Identification System
1986 – Software Bug Fatalities
1986 – Pixar Animation Studios
1986 – D-Link Corporation founded in Taipei, Taiwan
1987 – Digital Video Editing
1988 – MPEG – Moving Picture Experts Group – Coding-Compressing Audio-Video
1988 – CD-ROM
1988 – Morris Worm Internet Computer Virus
1988 – Linksys founded
1989 – SimCity Video Game
1990 – GPS Is Operational – Global Positioning System
1990 – Digital Money is Invented – DigiCash – Precursor to Bitcoin
1991 – Pretty Good Privacy (PGP)
1991 – DARPA’s Report “Computers at Risk: Safe Computing in the Information Age“
1991 – Linux Kernel Operating System Invented by Linus Torvalds
1992 – Unicode Character Encoding
1993 – Apple Newton
1994 – First Banner Ad – Wired Magazine
1994 – RSA-129 Encryption Cracked
1995 – DVD
1995 – E-Commerce Startups – eBay, Amazon and DoubleClick Launched
1995 – AltaVista Web Search Engine
1995 – Gartner Hype Cycle
1996 – Universal Serial Bus (USB)
1996 – Juniper Networks founded
1997 – PalmPilot
1997 – E Ink
1998 – Diamond Rio MP3 Player
1998 – Google
1999 – Blog Is Coined
2000 – USB Flash Drive
2000 – Fortinet founded
2001 – Wikipedia
2001 – Apple iTunes
2002 – Home-Cleaning Robot
2003 – CAPTCHA
2004 – Product Tracking
2004 – Facebook
2006 – Differential Privacy
2007 – Apple iPhone
2008 – Bitcoin
2010 – Cyber Weapons
2011 – IBM Watson Wins Jeopardy!
2011 – World IPv6 Day
2012 – DNA Data Storage
2014 – Data Breaches
2015 – Google Releases TensorFlow
~2050 -Hahahaha! – Artificial General Intelligence (AGI)
~9999 – The Limits of Computation?
- WP – Timeline of computing before 1950: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_hardware_before_1950
- WP – Timeline of computing 1950–1979 – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_1950%E2%80%931979
- WP – Timeline of computing 1980–1989 – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_1980%E2%80%931989
- WP – Timeline of computing 1990–1999 – https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_1990%E2%80%931999
- WP – Timeline of computing 2000–2009: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_2000%E2%80%932009
- WP – Timeline of computing 2010–2019: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_2010%E2%80%932019
- WP – Timeline of computing 2020–Present: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_2020%E2%80%93present
Rare paintings set aside life stories of each of the eighty-four wild Buddhist saints of ancient India.
This exquisite full-color presentation of the lives of the eighty-four mahāsiddhas, or “great accomplished ones,” offers a fresh glimpse into the world of the famous tantric yogis of medieval India. The stories of these tantric saints have captured the imagination of Buddhists across Asia for nearly a millennium. Unlike monks and nuns who renounce the world, these saints sought the sacred in the midst of samsara. Some were simple peasants who meditated while doing manual labor. Others were kings and queens who traded the comfort and riches of the palace for the danger and transgression of the charnel ground. Still others were sinners—pimps, drunkards, gamblers, and hunters—who transformed their sins into sanctity.
This book includes striking depictions of each of the mahāsiddhas by a master Tibetan painter, whose work has been preserved in pristine condition. Published here for the first time in its entirety, this collection includes details of the painting elements along with the life stories of the tantric saints, making this one of the most comprehensive works available on the eighty-four mahāsiddhas.
“Seeing the Sacred in Samsara is a gem that should adorn the library of every Tibetan Buddhist or that of anyone who has more than a passing interest in Tibetan Buddhism. This book brings to life the stories of the Indian mahāsiddhas, hugely important figures in the imagination of the
Tibetan Vajrayana tradition.”—Thupten Jinpa, Principal English Translator to His Holiness the Dalai Lama
“Commissioned from an artist in eastern Tibet by a senior member of the Thirteenth Dalai Lama’s government but never displayed or published before, these remarkable paintings offer fresh insight into the workings of a master painter and the conversion of religious concepts into images. Written with his characteristic clarity and elegance, Professor Lopez has produced a book that will be a delight for admirers of Tibetan painting and a wonderful resource for students of Tibetan Buddhism.”—Clare Harris, Professor of Visual Anthropology, University of Oxford
“This book makes available for the first time a beautiful set of paintings of the Indian siddhas from early twentieth century Tibet. Lopez’s introduction provides the reader with a marvelous overview of the siddhas, their social context, the tantric tradition to which they belonged, their doctrines, and their depiction in Tibetan art history. A feast for both the eye and the mind, Seeing the Sacred in Samsara is a superb primer on one of the most important and fascinating saintly confederations in all of Buddhist history.”—José Cabezón, Dalai Lama Professor of Tibetan Buddhism and Cultural Studies, University of California Santa Barbara
“Seeing the Sacred in Samsara is a wonder, a one-of-a-kind collection… It will serve as a timeless inspiration for all wisdom seekers for generations to come.”—New York Journal of Books
About the Author
Donald S. Lopez Jr. is the Arthur E. Link Distinguished University Professor of Buddhist and Tibetan Studies at the University of Michigan. He specializes in late Indian Mahāyāna Buddhism and Tibetan Buddhism. His recent books include Gendun Chopel: Tibet’s Modern Visionary and Hyecho’s Journey: The World of Buddhism.
- ASIN: B07JD1Q2Y7
- Publisher: Shambhala (May 28, 2019)
- Publication date: May 28, 2019
- Print length: 229 pages
Mahasiddhas: La vie de 84 sages de l’Inde (French Edition) Abhayadatta (Author), Comité Padmakara (Translator)
“Au début de notre ère, lorsque se répandirent les enseignements du Bouddha auxquels fut donné le nom de Grand Véhicule, apparurent nombre de maîtres remarquables qui devinrent célèbres sous le nom sanskrit de mahâsiddhas, “grands êtres accomplis”, parce qu’ils avaient atteint les siddhis, ou “accomplissements”.
La tradition a surtout retenu le nom de quatre vingt- quatre d’entre eux.
Voici l’histoire de leurs vies, appelées “libérations parfaites”, où se côtoient anecdotes insolites et enseignements profonds que couronne toujours l’Éveil libre de toute entrave : le Grand Sceau qui inspire à Ghandika ce chant de réalisation :
Comme le remède et le poison
Participent de la même essence
En produisant deux effets distincts,
Les actes négatifs et leurs antidotes
Ont la même nature et ne diffèrent point.
Ce que réalisant, les sages ne rejettent rien,
Mais les êtres puérils, dans leur ignorance,
Ne le réalisent pas et errent dans le samsâra,
Mûs par les cinq poisons.
- ASIN: B00ZI97BVY
- Publication date: July 1, 2003
- Language: French
- Print length : 239 pages
A Lamp to Illuminate the Five Stages (Tib. རིམ་ལྔ་རབ་ཏོ་གསལ་བའི་སྒྲོན་མེ་, Wyl. rim lnga rab to gsal ba’i sgron me) by Tsongkhapa Lobzang Drakpa is a presentation of the five stages (pancakrama) of the Guhyasamaja tantric system.” (RgWik)
This category includes information about all the most important Buddhist texts.
This category has the following 23 subcategories, out of 23 total.
Pages in category “Texts”
The following 449 pages are in this category
- A Brief Guide to the Stages of Visualization
- A Great Treasure of Blessings
- A Guide to the Words of My Perfect Teacher
- A Hundred Wisdoms
- A Lamp to Illuminate the Five Stages
- A Mirror Reflecting Clearly the Chöpön Activities for Rigdzin Düpa
- A Torch for the Path to Omniscience
- Abhidharmakosa Vrtti Marmadipa
- Adhyasayasamcodana Sutra
- An Ocean of Excellent Explanations Clarifying the Abhidharma Kosha
- Analysis of the Five Skandhas
- Annotated Commentary on the Bodhicharyavatara
- Ascertainment of the Three Types of Vows
- Ascertainment of Valid Cognition
- Avatamsaka Sutra
- Beacon of Certainty
- Blaze of Reason
- Bodhisattva Bhumis
- Boiling Lake of Blood Tantra
- Calling Witness with a Hundred Prostrations
- Changchub Shunglam
- Chanting the Names of Manjushri
- Chetsün Nyingtik
- Chimphu Catalogue
- Chönyi Namkhai Longdzö
- Clear Differentiation of the Three Sets of Vows
- Collected Topics
- Collected works of Dodrupchen Tenpe Nyima
- Collected works of Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo
- Collected works of Patrul Rinpoche
- Collected Works of Sachen Kunga Nyingpo
- Collected works of Tulku Tsullo
- Collection of Advice
- Collection of Praises
- Commentaries on the Generation, Perfection and Great Perfection Phases of the Heart Essence of the Vast Expanse
- Commentary on Bodhichitta
- Commentary on the Four Hundred Verses on the Yogic Deeds of Bodhisattvas
- Commentary on Valid Cognition
- Compendium of Abhidharma
- Compendium of Sadhanas
- Compendium of Tantras
- Compendium of Valid Cognition
- Compendium on Reality
- Cultivating Trust in the Great Vehicle
- Daknang Yeshe Drawa
- Detailed Commentary on the Lama Gongdü
- Dispelling Darkness in the Ten Directions
- Dispelling Mind’s Darkness
- Distinguishing Dharma and Dharmata
- Distinguishing Phenomena and What Is Meaningful
- Distinguishing the Middle from Extremes
- Distinguishing the Two Truths
- Dodrupchen Jikme Tenpe Nyima’s Collected Works
- Dodrupchen Monastery Publications
- Drel Chung Dön Sal Nyingpo
- Drops for Healing Beings
- Drops of Nectar
- Drops of Reasoning
- Dzogchen and Padmasambhava
- Döjo Bumzang
- Düpa Do
- Eight Sections of Magical Illusion
- Eight Verses of Training the Mind
- Eighteen tantras of Mahayoga
- Elucidating the Sage’s Intent
- Essence of Clear Light
- Eye Commentary
- Fifty Stanzas on Following a Teacher
- Finding Comfort and Ease in Meditation
- Finding Comfort and Ease in the Illusoriness of Things
- Finding Comfort and Ease in the Nature of Mind
- Five Chronicles
- Five classes of great dharanis
- Five royal sutras
- Five Treatises of Maitreya
- Flight of the Garuda
- Fortunate Aeon Sutra
- Four criteria used when applying a title to a text
- Four Final Testaments of the Vidyadharas
- Four Hundred Verses
- Four kinds of treatise
- Four Means of Abiding
- Four Sections of Magical Illusion
- Fourfold interrelated purpose
- Heart of Dependent Origination
- Heart of the Middle Way
- Heart Sutra
- Heart Treasure of the Saints
- Highest Yoga Tantra
- Illuminating the Excellent Path to Omniscience
- Immaculate White Lotus
- Indian Version of the Life of Guru Rinpoche
- Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö’s Collected Works Volume Five
- Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö’s Collected Works Volume Four
- Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö’s Collected Works Volume One
- Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö’s Collected Works Volume Six
- Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö’s Collected Works Volume Three
- Jamyang Khyentse Chökyi Lodrö’s Collected Works Volume Two
- Jewel Garland of Chö
- Jikme Lingpa’s Collected Works
- Ka khol ma
- Kagyé Deshek Düpa
- Kagyé Namshé
- Ketaka Gem
- Key to the Precious Treasury
- Khandro Gegyang
- Khandro Nyingtik
- Khandro Yangtik
- Khenpo Ngakchung’s Collected Works Volume 1
- Khenpo Ngakchung’s Collected Works Volume 2
- Khenpo Ngakchung’s Collected Works Volume 3
- Khenpo Ngakchung’s Collected Works Volume 4
- Khenpo Ngakchung’s Collected Works Volume 5
- Khenpo Ngakchung’s Collected Works Volumes 6 and 7
- Khenpo Ngakchung’s Collected Works Volumes 8 and 9
- Khyentse Özer
- King of Samadhi Sutra
- Kulayaraja Tantra
- Kunzang Gongpa
- Lakar Family Publications
- Lalitavistara Sutra
- Lama Gongdü
- Lama Yangtik
- Lamp for the Path of Awakening
- Lamp to Dispel Darkness
- Lamrim Chenmo
- Lamrim Yeshe Nyingpo
- Letter to a Disciple
- Letter to a Friend
- Lion’s Perfect Expressive Power
- Lion’s Roar for Cutting Through Errors and Deviations
- Lives of the Hundred Tertöns
- Longchen Nyingtik Core Texts
- Lotus Sutra
- Maha-Ati Yoga Zabchö Gongpa Rangdrol
- Mahaparinirvana Sutra
- Mani Kabum
- Mirik Petrün Khang
- Mongpé Lün Chö Dak Göja Puchen
- Natural Freedom of Equality
- Natural Freedom of Reality
- Naturally Liberating Whatever You Meet: Instructions to Guide You on the Profound Path
- Neluk Rangjung
- New Red Annals
- Ngöndro Compendium
- Noble Sutra of Recalling the Three Jewels
- Nyingma Gyübum
- Nyingma Gyübum – Compilation Index
- Nyingma Gyübum – Derge Edition Index
- Nyingma Kama
- Nyingtik Tsapö
- Nyingtik Yabshyi
- Ocean of Good Explanation
- Ocean of Perfect Wonder
- Opening of the Dharma
- Ornament of Abhidharma
- Ornament of the Middle Way
- Pangtangma Catalogue
- Parting from the Four Attachments
- Perfection of Wisdom in Ten Thousand Lines
- Perfection of Wisdom Sutra in Eight Thousand Lines
- Perfection of Wisdom Sutra in Eighteen Thousand Lines
- Perfection of Wisdom Sutra in One Hundred Thousand Lines
- Perfection of Wisdom Sutra in Twenty-five Thousand Lines
- Phur drel bum nag
- Pointing-out Instruction to the Old Lady
- Praise of the Inconceivable
- Praise of the Supramundane
- Praise of the Ultimate
- Praise to the Dharmadhatu
- Pratimoksha Sutra
- Prayer of Kuntuzangpo
- Precious Garland
- Profound Inner Meaning
- Proper Dharma Conduct
- Purification of Karmic Obscurations Sutra
- Refutation of Objections
- Reverberation of Sound Tantra
- Rice Seedling Sutra
- Rigdzin Sokdrup
- Rigpa Tibetan Calendar
- Rigpa Tibetan Wall Calendar
- Rinchen Terdzö
- Sakya Lekshé
- Samantabhadra’s Aspiration to Good Actions
- Samdhinirmochana Sutra
- Sangwa Gyachen
- Sapan Khenjuk
- Saraha Nyingtik Zabmo
- Satipatthana Sutta
- Self-Liberating Meditation
- Seven Nails
- Seven Points of Mind Training
- Seven Treasuries
- Seven treatises of Abhidharma
- Seven Treatises on Valid Cognition
- Seventeen Tantras
- Seventy Verses on Taking Refuge
- Sherik Dorje Nӧnpo Gyü
- Six basic texts of the Kadampas
- Six Experiences of Meditation
- Smaller Sukhavativyuha Sutra
- Sollo Chenmo
- Songs of Realization
- Special Serkyem Offering to the Protectors of the Terma Teaching of Tertön Sogyal, Lerab Lingpa
- Special Teaching of the Wise and Glorious King
- Stages of Meditation
- Stages of the Path of the Web of Magical Illusion
- Staircase to Akanishtha
- Summary of the Mahayana
- Summary of the Wish-Fulfilling Treasury’s Chapter on Tenet Systems
- Sutra of Boundless Life and Wisdom
- Sutra of Completely Pure Conduct
- Sutra of Instructions to the King
- Sutra of the Great Drum
- Sutra of the Inquiry of Jayamati
- Sutra of the Questions of an Old Lady
- Sutra of the Questions of Brahma
- Sutra of the Ten Bhumis
- Sutra of the Three Bodies
- Sutra of the Three Heaps
- Sutra of the Wheel of Dharma
- Sutra of the Wise and the Foolish
- Sutra on Dependent Arising
- Sutra on Impermanence
- Sutra on Reliance Upon a Spiritual Friend
- Sutra on the Eightfold Auspiciousnesses
- Sutra on the Inconceivable Secret
- Sutra on the Threefold Training
- Sutra on Wisdom at the Hour of Death
- Sutra Requested by Sagaramati
- Sweet Droplets of Amrita from the Mouths of Siddhas
- Sword of Wisdom for Thoroughly Ascertaining Reality
- Taking Refuge in the Three Jewels
- Tantra of the Twelve Kilas
- Tantra of the Union of the Sun and Moon
- Teaching the Fundamental Exposition and Detailed Analysis of Dependent Arising
- Teaching the Practice of a Bodhisattva
- Teaching the Relative and Ultimate Truths
- Tendrel Nyesel
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Eight
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Eleven
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Fifteen
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Five
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Four
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Fourteen
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Nine
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume One
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Seven
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Seventeen
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Six
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Sixteen
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Ten
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Thirteen
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Three
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Twelve
- Tertön Sogyal’s Collected Works Volume Two
- The Absorption of the Miraculous Ascertainment of Peace
- The Absorption of the Thus-Gone One’s Wisdom Seal
- The Absorption That Encapsulates All Merit
- The Alchemy of the Siddhas
- The Basket’s Display
- The Brightly Shining Sun
- The Brilliant Torch
- The Chapter on Going Forth
- The Chapter Teaching the Purification of Boundless Gateways
- The Dedication “Fulfilling All Aspirations”
- The Dedication “Protecting All Beings”
- The Detailed Account of the Previous Aspirations of the Blessed Bhaisajyaguruvaiduryaprabha
- The Dharani “Entering into Nonconceptuality”
- The Dwelling Place of Manjushri
- The Eight Buddhas
- The Excellent Chariot
- The Excellent Vase that Grants the Qualities of the Bodhisattvas
- The Exposition on the Universal Gateway
- The Five Great Treasures
- The Foundation of All Good Qualities
- The Fourfold Accomplishment
- The Gandi Sutra
- The Garland of Jewel Ornaments
- The Garland of Views: An Instruction
- The Great History
- The Hundred Deeds
- The Illusory Absorption Sutra
- The Inquiry of Avalokiteshvara on the Seven Qualities
- The Inquiry of Lokadhara
- The Jewel Mine
- The Jewel Ornament of Liberation
- The King of the Array of All Dharma Qualities
- The Lion’s Roar: A Commentary on Sugatagarbha
- The Mahasutra “On Entering the City of Vaishali”
- The Miraculous Play of Manjushri
- The Mirror of Poetics
- The Natural Freedom of the Nature of Mind
- The Nectar of Speech
- The Oral Transmission that Gladdens the Hearts of the Dharma Kings
- The Ornament of the Light of Awareness that Enters the Domain of All Buddhas
- The Ornament of the Mahayana Sutras
- The Perfection of Generosity
- The Precious Discourse on the Blessed One’s Extensive Wisdom That Leads to Infinite Certainty
- The Prophecy of Shri Mahadevi
- The Question of Ksemankara
- The Question of Maitreya
- The Question of Maitreya on the Eight Qualities
- The Questions of Bhadrapala the Merchant
- The Questions of Brahmadatta
- The Questions of Gunaratnasankusumita
- The Questions of Pratibhanamati
- The Questions of Purna
- The Questions of Ratnacandra
- The Questions of Ratnajalin
- The Questions of Sagaramati
- The Questions of the Kimnara King Druma
- The Questions of the Naga King Sagara
- The Rain of Virtue and Goodness: A Brief Ritual for Consecrating Representations of Enlightened, Body, Speech and Mind
- The Ratnaketu Dharani
- The Rite for the Protocols Associated with Carrying the Ringing Staff
- The Sections of Dharma
- The Seven Buddhas
- The Spontaneous Vajra Song of Fulfilment and Confession
- The Strength of the Elephant
- The Sutra of Tara Who Protects from the Eight Fears
- The Sutra of the Question of Subahu
- The Sutra on the Ringing Staff
- The Sutra Teaching the Four Factors
- The Tantra of Candamaharosana
- The Teaching by the Child Inconceivable Radiance
- The Teaching of Akshayamati
- The Teaching on the Aids to Enlightenment
- The Teaching on the Extraordinary Transformation that is the Miracle of Attaining the Buddha’s Powers
- The Teaching on the Great Compassion of the Tathagata
- The Teaching on the Indivisible Nature of the Realm of Phenomena
- The ten royal sutras
- The Tibetan Book of Living and Dying
- The Treasure Mine of Composition
- The Twelve Buddhas
- The Verses of Naga King Drum
- The Wheel Blade of Mind Transformation
- The Words of My Perfect Teacher
- The Words of the Vidyadhara which Bestow the Majesty of Great Bliss
- Thirteen great texts
- Thirteen late translated sutras
- Thirty Pieces of Advice from the Heart
- Thirty Stanzas
- Thirty-Seven Practices of the Bodhisattvas
- Three pitakas
- Three Principal Aspects of the Path
- Thukjé Deshek Kundü
- Tibetan Book of the Dead
- Torch to Dispel Darkness
- Translator’s homage
- Treasury of Abhidharma
- Treasury of Dharmadhatu
- Treasury of Knowledge
- Treasury of Philosophical Tenets
- Treasury of Pith Instructions
- Treasury of Precious Instructions
- Treasury of the Natural State
- Treasury of the Supreme Vehicle
- Treasury of Valid Reasoning
- Treasury of Word and Meaning
- Treatise on Karma
- Treatise on the Three Natures
- Tree of Wisdom
- Trilogy of Dispelling Darkness
- Trilogy of Finding Comfort and Ease
- Trilogy of Natural Freedom
- Tsik Sum Né Dek
- Tung Shak
- Turning Suffering and Happiness into Enlightenment
- Twelve branches of the excellent teaching
- Twenty Stanzas
- Twenty Verses on the Bodhisattva Vow
- Twenty-one Indian Commentaries
- Two commentarial traditions
- Two reasons for applying a title to a text
- Two stainless cycles
- Two-Volume Lexicon
- Vajra Cutter Sutra
- Verse Summary of the Perfection of Wisdom
- Vima Nyingtik
- Vimalakirti Nirdesha Sutra
- Weapon-like Introduction to Speech
- Well Explained Reasoning
- Wheel of Analytical Meditation
- White Lotus
- White Lotus of Compassion Sutra
- Wish-fulfilling Jewel Embodying the Three Roots
- Wish-Fulfilling Treasury
- Wish-Fulfilling Tree
- Word of the Buddha
- Words of the Vidyadharas
- Words to Delight My Teacher Manjughosha
- RgWik (original source )
- B00F8MIIIG PDoB
- B007JWL3CQ BAtoZ
- B00HDE2GW6 EoBDK
- B004OEK3GY DoBOxf
- B003OYIG00 WTBT
“The World Book Encyclopedia is the only general A-Z print research source that is still published today. World Book makes it easy to explore, learn, and grow. Whether you are looking up information to understand a subject or checking a fact for a homework or research assignment, you can find your answers here! Thousands of index entries make it easy to find information wherever it is in the set. An abundance of colorful photos, diagrams, charts, tables, and maps supplement the easy to read text.
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Alexander, Charles C. Holding the Line: The Eisenhower Era, 1952–1961. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1975.
Baran, Paul.“Packet Switching.” In Fundamentals of Digital Switching. 2d ed. Edited by John C. McDonald. New York: Plenum Press, 1990.
Barry, John A. Technobabble. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1991.
Bell, C. Gordon, Alan Kotok, Thomas N. Hastings, and Richard Hill. “The Evolution of the DEC System-10.” In Computer Engineering: A DEC View of Hardware Systems Design. Edited by C. Gordon Bell, J. Craig Mudge, and John E. McNamara. Bedford, Mass.: Digital Equipment Corporation, 1978.
Bell, C. Gordon, Gerald Butler, Robert Gray, John E. McNamara, Donald Vonada, and Ronald Wilson. “The PDP-1 and Other 18-Bit Computers.” In Computer Engineering: A DEC View of Hardware Systems Design. Edited by C. Gordon Bell, J. Craig Mudge, and John E. McNamara. Bedford, Mass.: Digital Equipment Corporation, 1978.
Bergaust, Erik. Wernher von Braun. Washington, D.C.: National Space Institute, 1976.
Blanc, Robert P., and Ira W. Cotton, eds. Computer Networking. New York: IEEE Press, 1976.
Brendon, Piers. Ike: His Life and Times. New York: Harper & Row, 1986.
Brooks, John. Telephone: The First HundredYears. New York: Harper & Row, 1976.
Brucker, Roger W., and Richard A. Watson. The Longest Cave. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1976.
Clarke, Arthur C., et al. The Telephone’s First Century—And Beyond: Essays on the Occasion of the 100th Anniversary of Telephone Communication. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell Company, 1977
Computer Science, Numerical Analysis and Computing. National Physical Laboratory, Engineering Sciences Group, Research 1971. London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1972.
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Goldstein, Jack S. A Different Sort of Time: The Life of Jerrold R. Zacharias. Cambridge MIT Press, 1992.
Halberstam, David. The Fifties. New York:Villard Books, 1993.
Hall, Mark, and John Barry. Sunburst: The Ascent of Sun Microsystems. Chicago: Contemporary Books, 1990.
Hammond, William M. Public Affairs: The Military and the Media, 1962–1968. Washington, D.C.: Center of Military History, U.S. Army, Superintendent of Documents, U.S. Government Printing Office, 1968.
Hamner, W. Clay. “The United States Postal Service: Will It Be Ready for the Year 2000?” In The Future of the Postal Service. Edited by Joel L. Fleishman. New York: Praeger, 1983.
Holzmann, Gerard J., and Björn Pehrson. The Early History of Data Network. Los Alamitos, Calif.: IEEE Computer Society Press, 1995.
Kidder, Tracy. The Soul of a New Machine. Boston: Little, Brown, 1981.
Killian, James R., Jr. Sputnik, Scientists, and Eisenhower: A Memoir of the First Special Assistant to the President for Science and Technology. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1977.
———. The Education of a College President: A Memoir. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1985.
Kleinrock, Leonard. Communication Nets: Stochastic Message Flow and Delay. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1964.
———. Queueing Systems. 2 vols. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1974–1976.
Langdon-Davies, John. NPL: Jubilee Book of the National Physical Laboratory. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office, 1951.
Lebow, Irwin. Information Highways & Byways: From the Telegraph to the 21st Century. New York: IEEE Press, 1995.
Licklider, J. C. R. “Computers and Government.” In The Computer Age: A Twenty-Year View, edited by Michael L. Dertouzos and Joel Moses. MIT Bicentennial Series. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1979.
———. Libraries of the Future. Cambridge: MIT Press, 1965.
Padlipsky, M. A. The Elements of Networking Style and Other Essays & Animadversions of the Art of Intercomputer Networking. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: Prentice-Hall, Inc., 1985.
Proceedings of the Fifth Data Communications Symposium. IEEE Computer Society, Snowbird, Utah, September 27–29, 1977.
Pyatt, Edward. The National Physical Laboratory: A History. Bristol, England: Adam Hilger Ltd., 1983.
Redmond, Kent C., and Thomas M. Smith. The Whirlwind Project: The History of a Pioneer Computer. Bedford, Mass.: Digital Press, 1980.
Rheingold, Howard. The Virtual Community. New York: Harper Perennial, 1994.
———. Tools for Thought: The People and Ideas Behind the Next Computer Revolution. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1988.
Roberts, Lawrence G. “The ARPANET and Computer Networks.” In A History of Personal Workstations, edited by Adele Goldberg. Reading, Mass.: ACM Press (Addison-Wesley), 1988.
Rose, Marshall T. The Internet Message: Closing the Book with Electronic Mail. Englewood Cliffs, N.J.: PTR Prentice Hall, 1993.
Sherman, Kenneth. Data Communications: A User’s Guide. Reston,Virginia: Reston Publishing Company, 1981.
Smith, Douglas K., and Robert C. Alexander. Fumbling the Future: How Xerox Invented, then Ignored, the First Personal Computer. New York: William Morrow, 1988.
Udall, Stewart L. The Myths of August: A Personal Exploration of Our Tragic Cold War Affair with the Atom. New York: Pantheon, 1994.
Wildes, Karl L., and Nilo A. Lindgren. A Century of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science at MIT, 1882–1982. Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1985.
Winner, Langdon. The Whale and the Reactor: A Search for Limits in an Age of High Technology. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1986.Edit
Journal, Magazine, and Newspaper Articles
Abramson, Norman. “Development of the Alohanet.” IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, January 1985.
Anderson, Christopher. “The Accidental Superhighway.” The Economist, 1 July 1995.
Baran, Paul. “On Distributed Communications Networks.” IEEE Transactions on Communications Systems, 1 March 1964.
———.“Reliable Digital Communications Systems Using Unreliable Network Repeater Nodes.” RAND Corporation Mathematics Division Report No. P-1995, 27 May 1960.
Boggs, David R., John F. Shoch, Edward A. Taft, and Robert M. Metcalfe. “PUP: An Internetwork Architecture.” IEEE Transactions on Communications, April 1980.
“Bolt Beranek Accused by Government of Contract Overcharges.” Dow Jones News Service–Wall Street Journal combined stories, 27 October 1980.
“Bolt Beranek and Newman: Two Aides Plead Guilty to U.S. Charge.” Dow Jones News Service–Wall Street Journal combined stories, 12 November 1980.
“Bolt Beranek, Aides Accused of Cheating U.S. on Several Jobs.” The Wall Street Journal, 28 October 1980.
Bulkeley, William M. “Can He Turn Big Ideas into Big Sales?” The Wall Street Journal, 12 September 1994.
Bush,Vannevar. “As We May Think.” Atlantic Monthly, July 1945.
Campbell-Kelly, Martin. “Data Communications at the National Physical Laboratory: 1965–1975.” Annals of the History of Computing 9, no. 3/4, 1988.
Cerf,Vinton G., and Peter T. Kirstein. “Issues in Packet-Network Interconnection.” Proceedings of the IEEE, November 1979.
Cerf, Vinton G., and Robert E. Kahn. “A Protocol for Packet-Network Intercommunication.” IEEE Transactions on Communications, May 1974.
Cerf, Vinton. “PARRY Encounters the Doctor: Conversation Between a Simulated Paranoid and a Simulated Psychiatrist.” Datamation, July 1973.
Clark, David D. “The Design Philosophy of the DARPA Internet Protocols.” Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery Sigcomm Symposium on Data Communications, August 1988.
Clark, David D., Kenneth T. Pogran, and David P. Reed. “An Introduction to Local Area Networks.” Proceedings of the IEEE, November 1979.
Comer, Douglas. “The Computer Science Research Network CSNET: A History and Status Report.” Communications of the ACM, October 1983.
Crowther, W. R., F. E. Heart, A. A. McKenzie, J. M. McQuillan, and D. C. Walden.“Issues in Packet Switching Networking Design.” Proceedings of the 1975 National Computer Conference, 1975.
Denning, Peter J. “The Science of Computing: The ARPANET After Twenty Years.” American Scientist, November-December 1989.
Denning, Peter J., Anthony Hearn, and C. William Kern. “History and Overview of CSNET. “Proceedings of the Association for Computing Machinery Sigcomm Symposium on Data Communications, March 1983.
“Dr. J. C. R. Licklider Receives Biennial Award at State College Meeting.” The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, November 1950.
Engelbart, Douglas C. “Coordinated Information Services for a Discipline-or Mission-Oriented Community.” Proceedings of the Second Annual Computer Communications Conference, January 1972.
———. “Intellectual Implications of Multi-Access Computer Networks.” Proceedings of the Interdisciplinary Conference on Multi-Access Computer Networks, Austin, Texas, April 1970.
Ericson, Raymond. “Philharmonic Hall Acoustics Start Rumors Flying.” The NewYork Times, 4 December 1962.
Finucane, Martin. “Creators of the Internet Forerunner Gather in Boston.” Reading (Mass.) Daily Times Herald, 12 September 1994.
Fisher, Sharon. “The Largest Computer Network: Internet Links UNIX Computers Worldwide.” InfoWorld, 25 April 1988.
Hines, William. “Mail.” Chicago Sun-Times, 29 March 1978.
Haughney, Joseph F. “Anatomy of a Packet-Switching Overhaul.” Data Communications, June 1982.
Holusha, John. “Computer Tied Carter, Mondale Campaigns: The Bethesda Connection.” Washington Star, 21 November 1976.
Jacobs, Irwin M., Richard Binder, and EstilV. Hoversten. “General Purpose Packet Satellite Networks.” Proceedings of the IEEE, November 1978.
Jennings, Dennis M., Lawrence H. Landweber, Ira H. Fuchs, David J. Farber, and W. Richards Adrion. “Computer Networking for Scientists.” Science, 22 February 1986.
Kahn, Robert E. “The Role of Government in the Evolution of the Internet.” Communications of the ACM, August 1994.
Kahn, Robert E., Steven A. Gronemeyer, Jerry Burchfiel, and Ronald C. Kunzelman. “Advances in Packet Radio Technology.” Proceedings of the IEEE, November 1978.
Kantrowitz, Barbara, and Adam Rogers. “The Birth of the Internet.” Newsweek, 8 August 1994.
Kleinrock, Leonard. “Principles and Lessons in Packet Communications.” Proceedings of the IEEE, November 1978.
Landweber, Lawrence H., Dennis M. Jennings, and Ira Fuchs. “Research Computer Networks and Their Interconnection.” IEEE Communications Magazine, June 1986.
Lee, J. A. N., and Robert F. Rosin.“The CTSS Interviews.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 14, no. 1, 1992.
———.“The Project MAC Interviews.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 14, no. 2, 1992.
Licklider, J. C. R. “A Gridless, Wireless Rat-Shocker.” Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology 44, 1951.
———. “Man-Computer Symbiosis.” Reprint. In Memoriam: J. C. R. Licklider. Digital Equipment Corporation Systems Research Center, 7 August 1990.
Licklider, J. C. R., and Albert Vezza. “Applications of Information Networks.” Proceedings of the IEEE, November 1978.
Licklider, J. C. R., and Robert W. Taylor. “The Computer as a Communication Device.” Reprint. In Memoriam: J. C. R. Licklider. Digital Equipment Corporation Systems Research Center, 7 August 1990.
Markoff, John. “Up from the Computer Underground.” The NewYork Times, 27 August 1993.
McKenzie, Alexander A., and B. P. Cosell, J. M. McQuillan, M. J. Thrope. “The Network Control Center for the ARPA Network.” Proceedings of the IEEE, 1972.
Mier, Edwin E. “Defense Department Readying Network Ramparts.” Data Communications, October 1983.
Mills, Jeffrey. “Electronic Mail.” Associated Press, 4 January 1976.
———.“Electronic Mail.” Associated Press, 19 June 1976.
———. “Postal Service Tests Electronic Message Service.” Associated Press, 28 March 1978.
Mills, Kay.“The Public Concern: Mail.” Newhouse News Service, 27 July 1976.
Mohl, Bruce A. “2 Bolt, Beranek Officials Collapse in Federal Court.” The Boston Globe, 31 October 1980.
Pallesen, Gayle. “Consultant Firm on PBIA Faces Criminal Charges.” Palm Beach (Florida) Post, 8 November 1980.
Pearse, Ben. “Defense Chief in the Sputnik Age.” The NewYork Times Magazine, 10 November 1957.
Pool, Bob. “Inventing the Future: UCLA Scientist Who Helped Create Internet Isn’t Done Yet.” Los Angeles Times, 11 August 1994.
Quarterman, John S., and Josiah C. Hoskins. “Notable Computer Networks.” Communications of the ACM, October 1986.
Roberts, Lawrence G. “ARPA Network Implications.” Educom, Bulletin of the Interuniversity Communications Council, fall 1971.
Salus, Peter. “Pioneers of the Internet.” Internet World, September 1994.
“Scanning the Issues,” IEEE Spectrum, August 1964.
Schonberg, Harold C. “4 Acoustics Experts to Urge Revisions in Auditorium.” The NewYork Times, 4 April 1963.
———.“Acoustics Again: Philharmonic Hall Has Some Defects, But Also Has a Poetry of Its Own.” The NewYork Times, 9 December 1962.
Selling It. Consumer Reports, June 1977.
Space Agencies. “ARPA Shapes Military Space Research.” Aviation Week, 16 June 1958.
Sterling, Bruce. “Internet.” Fantasy and Science Fiction, February 1993.
Swartzlander, Earl. “Time-Sharing at MIT.” IEEE Annals of the History of Computing 14, no. 1, 1992.
“Transforming BB&N: ARPANET’s Architect Targets Non-Military Networks.” Data Communications, April 1984.
Wilson, David McKay. “BBN Executives Collapse in Court.” Cambridge (Mass.) Chronicle, 6 November 1980.
———. “Consulting Co. Admits Overcharge.” Cambridge (Mass.) Chronicle, 30 October 1980.
Zitner, Aaron. “A Quiet Leap Forward in Cyberspace.” The Boston Globe, 11 September 1994.
Zuckerman, Laurence.“BBN Steps Out of the Shadows and into the Limelight.” The NewYork Times, 17 July 1995.Edit
Unpublished Papers, Interviews from Secondary Sources, and Other Documents
”Act One.” Symposium on the history of the ARPANET held at the University of California at Los Angeles, 17 August 1989. Transcript.
ARPA Network Information Center, Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif. “Scenarios for Using the ARPANET.” Booklet. Prepared for the International Conference on Computer Communication, Washington, D.C., October 1972.
Baran, Paul. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 5 March 1990.
Barlow, John Perry. “Crime and Puzzlement.” Pinedale, Wyo., June 1990.
BBN Systems and Technologies Corporation. “Annual Report of the Science Development Program.” Cambridge, Mass., 1988.
Bhushan, A. K. “Comments on the File Transfer Protocol.” Request for Comments 385. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., August 1972.
———.“The File Transfer Protocol.” Request for Comments 354. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., July 1972.
Bhushan, Abhay, Ken Pogran, Ray Tomlinson, and Jim White. “Standardizing Network Mail Headers.” Request for Comments 561. MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 5 September 1973.
Blue, Allan. Interview by William Aspray. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 12 June 1989.
Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc. “ARPANET Completion Report: Draft.” Cambridge, Mass., September 1977.
———.“BBN Proposal No. IMP P69-IST-5: Interface Message Processors for the ARPA Computer Network.” Design proposal. Submitted to the Department of the Army, Defense Supply Service, in response to RFQ No. DAHC15 69 Q 0002. Washington, D.C., 6 September 1968.
———. “BBN Report No. 1763: Initial Design for Interface Message Processors for the ARPA Computer Network.” Design proposal. Submitted to the Advanced Research Projects Agency under contract no. DAHC 15-69-C-0179. Washington, D.C., 6 January 1969.
———. “BBN Report No. 1822: Interface Message Processor.” Technical report. Cambridge, Mass., 1969.
———.“Interface Message Processors for the ARPA Computer Network.” Quarterly technical reports. Submitted to the Advanced Research Projects Agency under contract no. DAHC 15-69-C-0179 and contract no. F08606-73-C-0027. Washington, D.C., 1969–1973.
———. “Operating Manual for Interface Message Processors: 516 IMP, 316 IMP, TEP.” Revised. Submitted to the Advanced Research Projects Agency under ARPA order no. 1260, contract no. DAHC15-69-C-0179. Arlington,Va., April 1973.
———. “Report No. 4799: A History of the ARPANET: The First Decade.” Submitted to the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency. Arlington,Va., April 1981.
———.“The Four Cities Plan.” Draft proposal and cost analysis for maintenance of IMPs and TIPs in Boston, Washington, Los Angeles, and San Francisco. Papers of BBN Division 6. Cambridge, Mass., April 1974.
———. Internal memoranda and papers relating to the work of Division 6. Cambridge, Mass., 1971–1972.
Carr, C. Stephen, Stephen D. Crocker, and Vinton G. Cerf. “HOST-HOST Communication Protocol in the ARPA Network.” Paper presented at the Spring Joint Computer Conference of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, 1970.
Catton, Major General, USAF, Jack. Letter to F. R. Collbohm of RAND Corporation, 11 October 1965. Referring the preliminary technical development plan for message-block network to the Defense Communications Agency.
Cerf,Vinton G.“Confessions of a Hearing-Impaired Engineer.” Unpublished.
———.“PARRY Encounters the Doctor.” Request for Comments 439 (NIC 13771). Network Working Group, 21 January 1973.
Cerf, Vinton G., and Jonathan B. Postel. “Specification of Internetwork Transmission Control Protocol: TCP Version 3.” Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, January 1978.
Cerf, Vinton G. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/ IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 24 April 1990.
Cerf, Vinton G., and Robert Kahn. “HOST and PROCESS Level Protocols for Internetwork Communication.” Notes of the International Network Working Group 39, 13 September 1973.
Clark, Wesley. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 3 May 1990.
Crocker, David H. “Standard for the Format of ARPA Internet Text Messages.” Request for Comments 822. Department of Electrical Engineering, University of Delaware, 13 August 1982.
Crocker, David H., John J. Vittal, Kenneth T. Pogran, and D. Austin Henderson Jr. “Standard for the Format of ARPA Network Text Messages.” Request for Comments 733. The RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, Calif., 21 November 1977.
Crowther, William. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 12 March 1990.
Crowther, William, and David Walden. “CurrentViews of Timing.” Memorandum to Frank E. Heart, Cambridge, Mass., 8 July 1969.
Davies, Donald W. “Further Speculations on Data Transmission.” Private papers. London, 16 November 1965.
———.“Proposal for a Digital Communication Network.” Private papers, photocopied and widely circulated. London, June 1966.
———. “Proposal for the Development of a National Communications Service for On-Line Data Processing.” Private papers. London, 15 December 1965.
———. “Remote On-line Data Processing and Its Communication Needs.” Private papers. London, 10 November 1965.
Davies, Donald W. Interview by Martin Campbell-Kelly. National Physical Laboratory, U.K., 17 March 1986.
Davies, Donald W., Keith Bartlett, Roger Scantlebury, and Peter Wilkinson. “A Digital Communications Network for Computers Giving Rapid Response at Remote Terminals.” Paper presented at the Association for Computing Machinery Symposium on Operating System Principles, Gatlinburg, Tenn., October 1967.
Davis, Ruth M. “Comments and Recommendations Concerning the ARPA Network.” Center for Computer Sciences and Technology, U.S. National Bureau of Standards, 6 October 1971.
Digital Equipment Corporation. “Interface Message Processors for the ARPA Computer Network.” Design proposal. Submitted to the Department of the Army, Defense Supply Service, in RFQ no. DAHC15 69 Q 002, 5 September 1968.
Frank, Howard. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 30 March 1990.
Goldstein, Paul. “The Proposed ARPANET Divestiture: Legal Questions and Economic Issues.” Working Paper, Cabledata Associates, Inc., CAWP no. 101, 27 July 1973.
Hauben, Michael, and Ronda Hauben. The Netizens Netbook page can be found at http://www.columbia.edu/∼hauben/netbook/. The Haubens’ work has also appeared in the Amateur Computerist Newsletter, available from ftp://wuarchive.wustl.edu/doc/misc/acn/.
Heart, F. E., R. E. Kahn, S. M. Ornstein, W. R. Crowther, and D. C. Walden. “The Interface Message Processor for the ARPA Computer Network.” Paper presented at the Spring Joint Computer Conference of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, 1970.
Heart, Frank E. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 13 March 1990.
Herzfeld, Charles. Interview by Arthur Norberg. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 6 August 1990.
Honeywell, Inc. “Honeywell at Bolt Beranek and Newman, Inc.” Brochure. Published for the ARPA Network demonstration at the International Conference on Computer Communication, Washington, D.C., October 1972.
Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California. “DOD Standard Transmission Control Protocol.” Request for Comments 761. Prepared for the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Information Processing Techniques Office, Arlington,Va., January 1980.
International Data Corporation. “ARPA Computer Network Provides Communications Technology for Computer/Computer Interaction Within Special Research Community.” Industry report and market review. Newtonville, Mass., 3 March 1972.
Kahn, Robert. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 24 April 1990.
Kahn, Robert. Interview by William Aspray. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 22 March 1989.
Kleinrock, Leonard. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 3 April 1990.
Kryter, Karl D. “Lick as a Psychoacoustician and Physioacoustician.” Presentation honoring J. C. R. Licklider at the Meeting of the Acoustical Society of America, Baltimore, Md., 30 April 1991.
———. Obituary of J. C. R. Licklider, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, December 1990.
Licklider, J. C. R., and Welden E. Clark. “On-Line Man-Computer Communication.” Paper presented at the Spring Joint Computer Conference of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, 1962.
Licklider, J. C. R. Interview by William Aspray. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 28 October 1988.
Lukasik, Stephen. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 17 October 1991.
Marill, Thomas, and Lawrence G. Roberts. “Toward a Cooperative Network of Time-Shared Computers.” Paper presented at the Fall Joint Computer Conference of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, 1966.
McCarthy, J., S. Boilen, E. Fredkin, and J. C. R. Licklider. “A Time-Sharing Debugging System for a Small Computer.” Paper presented at the Spring Joint Computer Conference of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, 1963.
McKenzie, Alexander A. “The ARPA Network Control Center.” Paper presented at the Fourth Data Communications Symposium of the Institute for Electrical and Electronics Engineers, October 1975.
McKenzie, Alexander A. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 13 March 1990.
Message Group. The full text of more than 2,600 e-mail messages sent by members of the Message Group (or MsgGroup), one of the first electronic mailing lists, relating to the development of e-mail. The Computer Museum, Boston, Mass., June 1975–June 1986. Electronic document. (http://www.tcm.org/msgroup)
Metcalfe, Robert. “Some Historic Moments in Networking.” Request for Comments 89. Network Working Group, 19 January 1971.
Myer, T. H., and D. A. Henderson. “Message Transmission Protocol.” Request for Comments 680. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 1975.
National Research Council, Commission on Engineering and Technical Systems. “Transport Protocols for Department of Defense Data Networks.” Report to the Department of Defense and the National Bureau of Standards, Board on Telecommunication and Computer Applications, 1985.
Neigus, N.J. “File Transfer Protocol.” Request for Comments 542. Bolt Beranek and Newman Inc., Cambridge, Mass., 12 July 1973.
Norberg, Arthur L., and Judy E. O’Neill. “A History of the Information Processing Techniques Office of the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency.” Charles Babbage Institute, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minn., 1992.
Ornstein, Severo M., F. E. Heart, W. R. Crowther, H. K. Rising, S. B. Russell, and A. Michel. “The Terminal IMP for the ARPA Network.” Paper presented at the Spring Joint Computer Conference of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, Atlantic City, N.J., May 1972.
Ornstein, Severo. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 6 March 1990.
Pogran, Ken, John Vittal, Dave Crowther, and Austin Henderson. “Proposed Official Standard for the Format of ARPA Network Messages.” Request for Comments 724. MIT, Cambridge, Mass., 12 May 1977.
Postel, Jonathan B. “Simple Mail Transfer Protocol.” Request for Comments 821. Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, August 1982.
———. “Specification of Internetwork Transmission Control Protocol: TCP Version 4.” Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California, September 1978.
———. “TCP and IP Bake Off.” Request for Comments 1025. Network Working Group, September 1987.
Pouzin, Louis. “Network Protocols.” Notes of the International Network Working Group 50, September 1973.
———.“Presentation and Major Design Aspects of the Cyclades Computer Network.” Paper presented at the IEEE Third Data Communications Symposium (Data Networks: Analysis and Design), November 1973.
———. “Experimental Communication Protocol: Basic Message Frame.” Notes of the International Network Working Group 48, January 1974.
———.“Interconnection of Packet Switching Networks.” Notes of the International Network Working Group 42, October 1973.
———. “Network Architecture and Components.” Notes of the International Network Working Group 49, August 1973.
RAND Corporation. “Development of the Distributed Adaptive Message-Block Network.” Recommendation to the Air Staff, 30 August 1965.
RCA Service Company, Government Services Division. “ARPANET Study Final Report.” Submitted under contract no. F08606-73-C-0018. 24 November 1972.
Richard J. Barber Associates, Inc. “The Advanced Research Projects Agency: 1958–1974.” A study for the Advanced Research Projects Agency under contract no. MDA-903-74-C-0096. Washington, D.C., December 1975. Photocopy.
Roberts, Lawrence G. “Extensions of Packet Communications Technology to a Hand-Held Personal Terminal.” Paper presented at the Spring Joint Computer Conference of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, May 1972.
———. “Multiple Computer Networks and Intercomputer Communication.” Paper presented at the Association for Computing Machinery Symposium on Operating System Principles, October 1967.
Roberts, Lawrence G., and Barry D. Wessler. “Computer Network Development to Achieve Resource Sharing.” Paper presented at the Spring Joint Computer Conference of the American Federation of Information Processing Societies, 1970.
Roberts, Lawrence G. Interview by Arthur Norberg. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 4 April 1989.
Ruina, Jack. Interview by William Aspray. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 20 April 1989.
Sutherland, Ivan. Interview by William Aspray. Charles Babbage Institute DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 1 May 1989.
Taylor, Robert. Interview by William Aspray. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 28 February 1989.
U.S. Postal Service. “Electronic Message Systems for the U.S. Postal Service.” Report of the U.S.P.S. Support Panel, Committee on Telecommunications, Washington, D.C., January 1977.
Walden, David C. “Experiences in Building, Operating, and Using the ARPA Network.” Paper presented at the Second USA-Japan Computer Conference, Tokyo, Japan, August 1975.
Walden, David. Interview by Judy O’Neill. Charles Babbage Institute, DARPA/IPTO Oral History Collection, University of Minnesota Center for the History of Information Processing, Minneapolis, Minn., 6 February 1990.
Walker, Stephen T. “Completion Report: ARPA Network Development.” Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, Information Processing Techniques Office, Washington, D.C., 4 January 1978.
Weik, Martin H. “A Third Survey of Domestic Electronic Digital Computing Systems.” Ballistic Research Laboratories, report no. 1115, March 1961.
White, Jim. “Proposed Mail Protocol.” Request for Comments 524. Stanford Research Institute, Menlo Park, Calif., 13 June 1973.
Zimmermann, H., and M. Elie. “Proposed Standard Host-Host Protocol for Heterogeneous Computer Networks: Transport Protocol.” Notes of the International Network Working Group 43, December 1973.Edit
Charles Babbage Institute, Center for the History of Information Processing, University of Minnesota. Large archival collection relating to the history of computing. More information can be obtained via the CBI Web site at http://cbi.itdean.umn.edu/cbi/welcome.html or via e-mail addressed to email@example.com.
Computer Museum, Boston, Massachusetts. Large collection relating to the history of computing, including the archives of the Message Group concerning the early development of e-mail. The archive is available via the homepage at http://www.tcm.org/msgroup.
Information Sciences Institute, University of Southern California. Collection includes up-to-date indexes and tests of Internet standards, protocols, Requests for Comments (RFCs), and various other technical notes available via the ISI Web site: http://www.isi.edu. Some of the earlier RFCs are not available electronically, but are archived off-line in meticulous fashion by RFC editor Jon Postel. A searchable archive is maintained at http://info.internet.isi.edu:80/in-notes/rfc.
Ohio State University, Department of Computer and Information Science. The CIS Web Server offers access to RFCs and various other technical and historical documents related to the Internet via http://www.cis. ohio-state.edu:80/hypertext/information/rfc.html.
Where Wizards Stay Up Late – The Origins Of The Internet by Matthew Lyon and Katie Hafner
by Matthew Lyon and Katie Hafner
“Twenty five years ago, it didn’t exist. Today, twenty million people worldwide are surfing the Net. Where Wizards Stay Up Late is the exciting story of the pioneers responsible for creating the most talked about, most influential, and most far-reaching communications breakthrough since the invention of the telephone.”
“In the 1960’s, when computers where regarded as mere giant calculators, J.C.R. Licklider at MIT saw them as the ultimate communications devices. With Defense Department funds, he and a band of visionary computer whizzes began work on a nationwide, interlocking network of computers. Taking readers behind the scenes, Where Wizards Stay Up Late captures the hard work, genius, and happy accidents of their daring, stunningly successful venture.”Edit
- Print length: 304 pages
- Publication date: August 19, 1999
- ASIN: B000FC0WP6
- Publisher: Simon & Schuster
- ISBN: 0684832674
Table of Contents
- 1. The Fastest Million Dollars
- 2. A Block Here, Some Stones There
- 3. The Third University
- 4. Head Down in the Bits
- 5. Do It to It Truett
- 6. Hacking Away and Hollering
- 7. E-Mail
- 8. A Rocket on Our Hands
- Chapter Notes
To the memory of J. C. R. Licklider and to the memory of Cary Lu
Return to Timeline of the History of Computers
The Mythical Man-Month
Frederick Brooks (b. 1931)
In 1963, IBM was sinking huge amounts of resources into finishing its new OS/360 operating system in time for the launch of System/360. The new operating system—the most complex ever created—was designed to be a single, unified system for IBM’s new family of computers. But while IBM’s hardware was on target for the 1964 launch, the software wasn’t.
Faced with delays and overruns, the project’s manager did what any manager might do in that situation: he hired more programmers. Much to Fred Brooks’s surprise, OS/360 fell even further behind schedule. So was born Brooks’s Law: “Adding manpower to a late software project makes it later.” The law appears in his classic collection, The Mythical Man-Month: Essays on Software Engineering, first published in 1975 and required reading for generations of computer science graduates.
The book, which has become the bible of software engineering, describes phenomena such as the “second-system effect,” which is the tendency of designers to put into the second version of a program all the features that were dropped from the first version—resulting in 2.0 versions that are bloated and buggy. Brooks also details techniques that he developed to manage the hundreds of people who were working on the OS/360 project—many of which are still used today.
Brooks left IBM in 1964 to take a faculty position at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, where he established the school’s computer science department. IBM announced System/360 the same year. Brooks issued a 20th-anniversary edition of The Mythical Man-Month in 1995 with four new chapters. Foremost among them was his paper “No Silver Bullet,” in which Brooks argues that there is no single technique ever invented in computing that has improved productivity, reliability, or simplicity by a factor of 10. Instead, he writes, the key to great design is to identify talented designers early in their careers, mentor them, and give them opportunities to design systems and interact with and stimulate other exceptional designers.
SEE ALSO IBM System/360 (1964)
Computer engineering professor Frederick Brooks speaks at the Turing Centennial Conference in Manchester, 2012.