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DevOps Kubernetes Software Engineering

Argo CD – Declarative, GitOps continuous delivery tool for Kubernetes

See also Kubernetes, Kubernetes and Containerization Bibliography

” (WP)

What Is Argo CD?

Argo CD is a declarative, GitOps continuous delivery tool for Kubernetes.

Argo CD UI

Why Argo CD?

Application definitions, configurations, and environments should be declarative and version controlled. Application deployment and lifecycle management should be automated, auditable, and easy to understand.

Getting Started

Quick Start

kubectl create namespace argocd
kubectl apply -n argocd -f https://raw.githubusercontent.com/argoproj/argo-cd/stable/manifests/install.yaml

Follow our getting started guide. Further user oriented documentation is provided for additional features. If you are looking to upgrade ArgoCD, see the upgrade guide. Developer oriented documentation is available for people interested in building third-party integrations.

How it works

Argo CD follows the GitOps pattern of using Git repositories as the source of truth for defining the desired application state. Kubernetes manifests can be specified in several ways:

  • kustomize applications
  • helm charts
  • ksonnet applications
  • jsonnet files
  • Plain directory of YAML/json manifests
  • Any custom config management tool configured as a config management plugin

Argo CD automates the deployment of the desired application states in the specified target environments. Application deployments can track updates to branches, tags, or pinned to a specific version of manifests at a Git commit. See tracking strategies for additional details about the different tracking strategies available.

For a quick 10 minute overview of Argo CD, check out the demo presented to the Sig Apps community meeting:

Argo CD Overview Demo

Architecture

Argo CD Architecture

Argo CD is implemented as a kubernetes controller which continuously monitors running applications and compares the current, live state against the desired target state (as specified in the Git repo). A deployed application whose live state deviates from the target state is considered OutOfSync. Argo CD reports & visualizes the differences, while providing facilities to automatically or manually sync the live state back to the desired target state. Any modifications made to the desired target state in the Git repo can be automatically applied and reflected in the specified target environments.

For additional details, see architecture overview.

Features

  • Automated deployment of applications to specified target environments
  • Support for multiple config management/templating tools (Kustomize, Helm, Ksonnet, Jsonnet, plain-YAML)
  • Ability to manage and deploy to multiple clusters
  • SSO Integration (OIDC, OAuth2, LDAP, SAML 2.0, GitHub, GitLab, Microsoft, LinkedIn)
  • Multi-tenancy and RBAC policies for authorization
  • Rollback/Roll-anywhere to any application configuration committed in Git repository
  • Health status analysis of application resources
  • Automated configuration drift detection and visualization
  • Automated or manual syncing of applications to its desired state
  • Web UI which provides real-time view of application activity
  • CLI for automation and CI integration
  • Webhook integration (GitHub, BitBucket, GitLab)
  • Access tokens for automation
  • PreSync, Sync, PostSync hooks to support complex application rollouts (e.g.blue/green & canary upgrades)
  • Audit trails for application events and API calls
  • Prometheus metrics
  • Parameter overrides for overriding ksonnet/helm parameters in Git

Development Status

Argo CD is being actively developed by the community. Our releases can be found here.

Adoption

Organizations who have officially adopted Argo CD can be found here.

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Bibliography Cloud DevOps Kubernetes Software Engineering

Kubernetes and Containerization Bibliography

See also Kubernetes

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AWS Azure Cloud DevOps GCP Linux Operating Systems Software Engineering

List of Linux containers

Linux containers are implementations of operating system-level virtualization for the Linux operating system. Several implementations exist, all based on the virtualization, isolation, and resource management mechanisms provided by the Linux kernel, notably Linux namespaces and cgroups.[1] These include:” (WP)

See also

References

  1. ^ Rami, Rosen. “Namespaces and Cgroups, the basis of Linux Containers” (PDF). Retrieved 18 August 2016.
  2. ^ “LXC – Linux Containers”linuxcontainers.org. Retrieved 2014-11-10.
  3. ^ “LXD”linuxcontainers.org. Retrieved 2021-02-11.
  4. ^ “Rkt container engine”.
  5. ^ “CNCF Archives RKT”. CNCF. Retrieved 19 Aug 2019.
  6. ^ “Red Hat to Acquire CoreOS”. Red Hat inc. Retrieved 30 Jan 2018.
  7. ^ Poettering, Lennart. “systemd For Administrators, Part XXI”. Retrieved 2 July 2016.
  8. ^ Rootless containers with Podman and fuse-overlayfs, CERN Workshop, 2019-06-04
  9. ^ https://hpc.github.io/charliecloud/. Retrieved 4 October 2020. Missing or empty |title= (help)
  10. ^ “Bottlerocket is a Linux-based operating system purpose-built to run containers”.
This Linux-related article is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.

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Cloud DevOps DevSecOps-Security-Privacy Linux Software Engineering

DevOps toolchain

See also: CloudOps, toolchain

“A DevOps toolchain is a set or combination of tools that aid in the delivery, development, and management of software applications throughout the systems development life cycle, as coordinated by an organization that uses DevOps practices.

Generally, DevOps tools fit into one or more activities, which supports specific DevOps initiatives: Plan, Create, Verify, Package, Release, Configure, Monitor, and Version Control.[1][2]” (WP)

Toolchains

“In software, a toolchain is the set of programming tools that is used to perform a complex software development task or to create a software product, which is typically another computer program or a set of related programs. In general, the tools forming a toolchain are executed consecutively so the output or resulting environment state of each tool becomes the input or starting environment for the next one, but the term is also used when referring to a set of related tools that are not necessarily executed consecutively.[3][4][5]

As DevOps is a set of practices that emphasizes the collaboration and communication of both software developers and other information technology (IT) professionals, while automating the process of software delivery and infrastructure changes, its implementation can include the definition of the series of tools used at various stages of the lifecycle; because DevOps is a cultural shift and collaboration between development and operations, there is no one product that can be considered a single DevOps tool. Instead a collection of tools, potentially from a variety of vendors, are used in one or more stages of the lifecycle.[6][7]” (WP)

Stages of DevOps

Further information: DevOps

Plan

Plan is composed of two things: “define” and “plan”.[8] This activity refers to the business value and application requirements. Specifically “Plan” activities include:

  • Production metrics, objects and feedback
  • Requirements
  • Business metrics
  • Update release metrics
  • Release plan, timing and business case
  • Security policy and requirement

A combination of the IT personnel will be involved in these activities: business application owners, software developmentsoftware architects, continual release management, security officers and the organization responsible for managing the production of IT infrastructure.

Create

Create is composed of the building (see also build automation), coding, and configuring of the software development process.[8] The specific activities are:

Tools and vendors in this category often overlap with other categories. Because DevOps is about breaking down silos, this is reflective in the activities and product solutions.[clarification needed]

Verify

Verify is directly associated with ensuring the quality of the software release; activities designed to ensure code quality is maintained and the highest quality is deployed to production.[8] The main activities in this are:

Solutions for verify related activities generally fall under four main categories: Test automation , Static analysis , Test Lab, and Security.

Packaging

Packaging refers to the activities involved once the release is ready for deployment, often also referred to as staging or Preproduction / “preprod”.[8] This often includes tasks and activities such as:

  • Approval/preapprovals
  • Package configuration
  • Triggered releases
  • Release staging and holding

Release

Release related activities include schedule, orchestration, provisioning and deploying software into production and targeted environment.[9] The specific Release activities include:

  • Release coordination
  • Deploying and promoting applications
  • Fallbacks and recovery
  • Scheduled/timed releases

Solutions that cover this aspect of the toolchain include application release automation, deployment automation and release management.

Configure

Configure activities fall under the operation side of DevOps. Once software is deployed, there may be additional IT infrastructure provisioning and configuration activities required.[8] Specific activities including:

  • Infrastructure storage, database and network provisioning and configuring
  • Application provision and configuration.

The main types of solutions that facilitate these activities are continuous configuration automationconfiguration management, and infrastructure as code tools.[10]

Monitor

Monitoring is an important link in a DevOps toolchain. It allows IT organization to identify specific issues of specific releases and to understand the impact on end-users.[8] A summary of Monitor related activities are:

  • Performance of IT infrastructure
  • End-user response and experience
  • Production metrics and statistics

Information from monitoring activities often impacts Plan activities required for changes and for new release cycles.

Version Control

Version Control is an important link in a DevOps toolchain and a component of software configuration management. Version Control is the management of changes to documents, computer programs, large web sites, and other collections of information.[8] A summary of Version Control related activities are:

  • Non-linear development
  • Distributed development
  • Compatibility with existent systems and protocols
  • Toolkit-based design

Information from Version Control often supports Release activities required for changes and for new release cycles.

See also

References

  1. ^ Edwards, Damon. “Integrating DevOps tools into a Service Delivery Platform”dev2ops.org.
  2. ^ Seroter, Richard. “Exploring the ENTIRE DevOps Toolchain for (Cloud) Teams”infoq.com.
  3. ^ “Toolchain Overview”nongnu.org. 2012-01-03. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  4. ^ “Toolchains”elinux.org. 2013-09-08. Retrieved 2013-10-21.
  5. ^ Imran, Saed; Buchheit, Martin; Hollunder, Bernhard; Schreier, Ulf (2015-10-29). Tool Chains in Agile ALM Environments: A Short IntroductionLecture Notes in Computer Science9416. pp. 371–380. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-26138-6_40ISBN 978-3-319-26137-9.
  6. ^ Loukides, Mike (2012-06-07). “What is DevOps?”.
  7. ^ Garner Market Trends: DevOps – Not a Market, but Tool-Centric Philosophy That supports a Continuous Delivery Value Chain (Report). Gartner. 18 February 2015.
  8. a b c d e f g Avoid Failure by Developing a Toolchain that Enables DevOps (Report). Gartner. 16 March 2016.
  9. ^ Best Practices in Change, Configuration and Release Management (Report). Gartner. 14 July 2010.
  10. ^ Roger S. Pressman (2009). Software Engineering: A Practitioner’s Approach (7th International ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.

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