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Integrated Development Environment (IDE)

“An integrated development environment (IDE) is a software application that provides comprehensive facilities to computer programmers for software development. An IDE normally consists of at least a source code editorbuild automation tools and a debugger. Some IDEs, such as Visual Studio, NetBeans and Eclipse, contain the necessary compilerinterpreter, or both; others, such as SharpDevelop and Lazarus, do not.” (WP)

“The boundary between an IDE and other parts of the broader software development environment is not well-defined; sometimes a version control system or various tools to simplify the construction of a graphical user interface (GUI) are integrated. Many modern IDEs also have a class browser, an object browser, and a class hierarchy diagram for use in object-oriented software development.” (WP)

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Kubuntu Linux Operating System

Official websitekubuntu.org
Kubuntu logo and wordmark.svg

Kubuntu (/kʊˈbʊntuː/ kuu-BUUN-too)[4] is an official flavour of the Ubuntu Linux distribution operating system that uses the KDE Plasma Desktop instead of the GNOME desktop environment. As part of the Ubuntu project, Kubuntu uses the same underlying systems. Every package in Kubuntu shares the same repositories as Ubuntu,[5] and it is released regularly on the same schedule as Ubuntu.[6]

Kubuntu was sponsored by Canonical Ltd. until 2012 and then directly by Blue Systems. Now, employees of Blue Systems contribute upstream, to KDE and Debian, and Kubuntu development is led by community contributors. During the changeover, Kubuntu retained the use of Ubuntu project servers and existing developers.[7]

Kubuntu was born on 10 December 2004 at the Ubuntu Mataro Conference in Mataró, Spain.

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Linux Mint Operating System

Linux Mint Official Logo.svg
Official websitelinuxmint.com

Linux Mint is a community-driven Linux distribution based on Ubuntu which itself is based on Debian, and bundled with a variety of free and open-source applications.[5][6] It can provide full out-of-the-box multimedia support for those who choose (by ticking one box during its installation process) to include proprietary software such as multimedia codecs.[7]

The Linux Mint project was created by Clément Lefèbvre and is actively maintained by the Linux Mint Team and community.[8]

Linux Mint began in 2006 with a beta release, 1.0, code-named ‘Ada’,[9] based on Kubuntu. Linux Mint 2.0 ‘Barbara’ was the first version to use Ubuntu as its codebase. It had few users until the release of Linux Mint 3.0, ‘Cassandra’.[10][11]

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Ubuntu Linux Operating System

Logo-ubuntu no(r)-black orange-hex.svg

Ubuntu (/ʊˈbʊntuː/ (listenuu-BUUN-too)[7] is a Linux distribution based on Debian and composed mostly of free and open-source software.[8][9][10] Ubuntu is officially released in three editions: Desktop,[11] Server,[12] and Core[13] for Internet of things devices[14] and robots.[15][16] All the editions can run on the computer alone, or in a virtual machine.[17] Ubuntu is a popular operating system for cloud computing, with support for OpenStack.[18] Ubuntu’s default desktop has been GNOME, since version 17.10.[19]

Ubuntu is released every six months, with long-term support (LTS) releases every two years.[7][20][21] As of 22 October 2020, the most recent long-term support release is 20.04 (“Focal Fossa”), which is supported until 2025 under public support and until 2030 as a paid option. The latest standard release is 20.10 (“Groovy Gorilla”), which is supported for nine months.

Ubuntu is developed by Canonical,[22] and a community of other developers, under a meritocratic governance model.[7][23] Canonical provides security updates and support for each Ubuntu release, starting from the release date and until the release reaches its designated end-of-life (EOL) date.[7][24][25] Canonical generates revenue through the sale of premium services related to Ubuntu.[26][27]

Ubuntu is named after the Nguni philosophy of ubuntu, which Canonical indicates means “humanity to others” with a connotation of “I am what I am because of who we all are”.[7]

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Tails Linux Operating System

The Amnesic Incognito Live System

Tails logo

Tails, or The Amnesic Incognito Live System, is a security-focused Debian-based Linux distribution aimed at preserving privacy and anonymity.[4] All its incoming and outgoing connections are forced to go through Tor,[5] and any non-anonymous connections are blocked. The system is designed to be booted as a live DVD or live USB, and will leave no digital footprint on the machine unless explicitly told to do so. The Tor Project provided financial support for its development in the beginnings of the project.[6] Tails comes with UEFI Secure Boot.

History:

Tails was first released on 23 June 2009. It is the next iteration of development on Incognito, a discontinued Gentoo-based Linux distribution.[7] The Tor Project provided financial support for its development in the beginnings of the project.[6] Tails also received funding from the Open Technology FundMozilla, and the Freedom of the Press Foundation.[8]

Laura PoitrasGlenn Greenwald, and Barton Gellman have each said that Tails was an important tool they used in their work with National Security Agency whistleblower Edward Snowden.[9][10][11]

From release 3.0, Tails requires a 64-bit processor to run.[12]

Bundled software:

Networking

Note: Due to the fact that Tails includes uBlock Origin (compared to the normal Tor Browser Bundle), it could be subject to an attack to determine if the user is using Tails (since the userbase for Tails is less than the Tor Browser Bundle) by checking if the website is blocking advertising.[14] Although this can be avoided by disabling uBlock Origin.

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Raspberry Pi OS Linux Operating System

Raspberry Pi OS[3] (formerly Raspbian) is a Debian-based Linux distribution operating system for Raspberry Pi. Since 2015 it has been officially provided by the Raspberry Pi Foundation as the primary operating system for the Raspberry Pi family of compact single-board computers.[4] The first version of Raspbian was created by Mike Thompson and Peter Green as an independent project.[5] The initial build was completed in June 2012.[6]

Previous Raspberry Pi OS versions were 32bit only and based on Debian, taking the name Raspbian. Since the more recent 64bit versions no longer use Debian, the name was changed to Raspberry Pi OS for both the 64bit and 32bit versions. As of 1 February 2021, the 64-bit version is in beta and is not suitable for general use.[7] [8]

Raspberry Pi OS is highly optimized for the Raspberry Pi line of compact single-board computers with ARM CPUs. It runs on every Raspberry Pi except the Pico microcontroller. Raspberry Pi OS uses a modified LXDE as its desktop environment with the Openbox stacking window manager, along with a unique theme. The distribution is shipped with a copy of the algebra program Wolfram Mathematica[4] and a version of Minecraft called Minecraft: Pi Edition, as well as a lightweight version of the Chromium web browser.”

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Knoppix Linux Operating System

KNOPPIX (/ˈknɒpɪks/ KNOP-iks)[2] is an Linux distribution operating system based on Debian designed to be run directly from a CD / DVD (Live CD) or a USB flash drive (Live USB), one of the first of its kind for any operating system[vague]. Knoppix was developed by, and named after, Linux consultant Klaus Knopper. When starting a program, it is loaded from the removable medium and decompressed into a RAM drive. The decompression is transparent and on-the-fly.

Although KNOPPIX is primarily designed to be used as a Live CD, it can also be installed on a hard disk like a typical operating system. Computers that support booting from USB devices can load KNOPPIX from a live USB flash drive or memory card.

There are two main editions: the traditional compact-disc (700 megabytes) edition and the DVD (4.7 gigabytes) “Maxi” edition. However, it appears that the CD edition has not been updated since June of 2013.[3] Each main edition has two language-specific editions: English and German.

KNOPPIX mostly consists of free and open source software, but also includes some proprietary software, as long as it fulfils certain conditions.[4]

Knoppix can be used to copy files easily from hard drives with inaccessible operating systems. To quickly and more safely use Linux software, the Live CD can be used instead of installing another OS.”

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Kali Linux Operating System

Kali Linux is a Debian-derived Linux distribution designed for digital forensics and penetration testing.[3] It is maintained and funded by Offensive Security.[4]

Kali Linux has around 600[5] pre-installed penetration-testing programs(tools), including Armitage (a graphical cyber attack management tool), Nmap (a port scanner), Wireshark (a packet analyzer), metasploit (penetration testing framework, awarded as the best penetration testing software), John the Ripper (a password cracker), sqlmap (automatic SQL injection and database takeover tool), Aircrack-ng (a software suite for penetration-testing wireless LANs), Burp suite and OWASP ZAP web application security scanners,[6][7] etc.

It was developed by Mati Aharoni and Devon Kearns of Offensive Security through the rewrite of BackTrack, their previous information security testing Linux distribution based on Knoppix. Originally, it was designed with a focus on kernel auditing, from which it got its name Kernel Auditing Linux. The name is sometimes incorrectly assumed to come from Kali the Hindu goddess.[8][9] The third core developer, Raphaël Hertzog, joined them as a Debian expert.[10][11]

Kali Linux is based on the Debian Testing branch. Most packages Kali uses are imported from the Debian repositories.[12]

Kali Linux’s popularity grew when it was featured in multiple episodes of the TV series Mr. Robot. Tools highlighted in the show and provided by Kali Linux include Bluesniff, Bluetooth Scanner (btscanner), John the Ripper, Metasploit Framework, Nmap, Shellshock, and Wget.[13][14][15]

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Debian GNU/Linux Operating System

Debian (/ˈdɛbiən/),[5][6] also known as Debian GNU/Linux, is a Linux distribution composed of free and open-source software, developed by the community-supported Debian Project, which was established by Ian Murdock on August 16, 1993. The first version of Debian (0.01) was released on September 15, 1993,[7] and its first stable version (1.1) was released on June 17, 1996.[8] The Debian Stable branch is the most popular edition for personal computers and servers. Debian is also the basis for many other distributions, most notably Ubuntu.

Debian is one of the oldest operating systems based on the Linux kernel. The project is coordinated over the Internet by a team of volunteers guided by the Debian Project Leader and three foundational documents: the Debian Social Contract, the Debian Constitution, and the Debian Free Software Guidelines. New distributions are updated continually, and the next candidate is released after a time-based freeze.

Since its founding, Debian has been developed openly and distributed freely according to the principles of the GNU Project. Because of this, the Free Software Foundation sponsored the project from November 1994 to November 1995. When the sponsorship ended, the Debian Project formed the nonprofit organization Software in the Public Interest to continue financially supporting development.”

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Linux Operating System Distribution (Linux Distro)

“A Linux distribution (often abbreviated as distro) is an operating system made from a software collection that is based upon the Linux kernel and, often, a package management system. Linux users usually obtain their operating system by downloading one of the Linux distributions, which are available for a wide variety of systems ranging from embedded devices (for example, OpenWrt) and personal computers (for example, Linux Mint) to powerful supercomputers (for example, Rocks Cluster Distribution).

A typical Linux distribution comprises a Linux kernel, GNU tools and libraries, additional software, documentation, a window system (the most common being the X Window System), a window manager, and a desktop environment.

Most of the included software is free and open-source software made available both as compiled binaries and in source code form, allowing modifications to the original software. Usually, Linux distributions optionally include some proprietary software that may not be available in source code form, such as binary blobs required for some device drivers.[1]

A Linux distribution may also be described as a particular assortment of application and utility software (various GNU tools and libraries, for example), packaged together with the Linux kernel in such a way that its capabilities meet the needs of many users.[2] The software is usually adapted to the distribution and then packaged into software packages by the distribution’s maintainers. The software packages are available online in so-called repositories, which are storage locations usually distributed around the world.[3][4] Beside glue components, such as the distribution installers (for example, Debian-Installer and Anaconda) or the package management systems, there are only very few packages that are originally written from the ground up by the maintainers of a Linux distribution.

Almost one thousand Linux distributions exist.[5][6] Because of the huge availability of software, distributions have taken a wide variety of forms, including those suitable for use on desktops, servers, laptops, netbooks, mobile phones and tablets,[7][8] as well as minimal environments typically for use in embedded systems.[9][10] There are commercially-backed distributions, such as Fedora (Red Hat), openSUSE (SUSE) and Ubuntu (Canonical Ltd.), and entirely community-driven distributions, such as DebianSlackwareGentoo and Arch Linux. Most distributions come ready to use and pre-compiled for a specific instruction set, while some distributions (such as Gentoo) are distributed mostly in source code form and compiled locally during installation.[11]

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Arch Linux Operating System

Arch Linux logo.svg

Arch Linux (/ɑːrtʃ/)[4] is a Linux distribution for computers with x86-64 processors.[5] Arch Linux adheres to the KISS principle (“Keep It Simple, Stupid”)[6] and is focused on simplicity, modernity, pragmatism, user centrality, and versatility. In practice, this means the project attempts to have minimal distribution-specific changes, and therefore minimal breakage with updates, and be pragmatic over ideological design choices and focus on user-centrality[clarification needed] rather than user-friendliness.[7]

package manager written specifically for Arch Linux, Pacman, is used to install, remove and update software packages.[8] Arch Linux uses a rolling release model, meaning there are no “major releases” of completely new versions of the system; a regular system update is all that is needed to obtain the latest Arch software; the installation images released every month by the Arch team are simply up-to-date snapshots of the main system components.[9]

Arch Linux has comprehensive documentation, which consists of a community wiki known as the ArchWiki.[10][11][12]

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!Template Linux Operating System

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Red Hat Incorporated (IBM)

Red Hat, Inc. is an American multinational software company that provides open source software products to enterprises. Founded in 1993, Red Hat has its corporate headquarters in Raleigh, North Carolina, with other offices worldwide. It became a subsidiary of IBM on July 9, 2019.[8]

Red Hat has become associated to a large extent with its enterprise operating system Red Hat Enterprise Linux. With the acquisition of open-source enterprise middleware vendor JBoss, Red Hat also offers Red Hat Virtualization (RHV), an enterprise virtualization product. Red Hat provides storage, operating system platforms, middleware, applications, management products, and support, training, and consulting services.

Red Hat creates, maintains, and contributes to many free software projects. It has acquired several proprietary software product codebases through corporate mergers and acquisitions and has released such software under open source licenses. As of March 2016, Red Hat is the second largest corporate contributor to the Linux kernel version 4.14 after Intel.[9]

On October 28, 2018, IBM announced its intent to acquire Red Hat for $34 billion.[10][11][12] The acquisition closed on July 9, 2019.[13]

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