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Angular Framework Bibliography DevOps JavaScript Software Engineering TypeScript

Getting MEAN with Mongo, Express, Angular, and Node, 2nd Edition – ISBN-13: 978-1617294754

See: Getting MEAN with Mongo, Express, Angular, and Node, 2nd Edition, Publisher ‏ : ‎ Manning Publications; 2nd edition (May 10, 2019)

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Summary

Getting MEAN, Second Edition teaches you how to develop full-stack web applications using the MEAN stack. This edition was completely revised and updated to cover MongoDB 4, Express 4, Angular 7, Node 11, and the latest mainstream release of JavaScript ES2015.

Purchase of the print book includes a free eBook in PDF, Kindle, and ePub formats from Manning Publications.

About the Technology

Juggling languages mid-application can radically slow down a full-stack web project. The MEAN stack—MongoDB, Express, Angular, and Node—uses JavaScript end to end, maximizing developer productivity and minimizing context switching. And you’ll love the results! MEAN apps are fast, powerful, and beautiful.

About the Book

Getting MEAN, Second Edition teaches you how to develop full-stack web applications using the MEAN stack. Practical from the very beginning, the book helps you create a static site in Express and Node. Expanding on that solid foundation, you’ll integrate a MongoDB database, build an API, and add an authentication system. Along the way, you’ll get countless pro tips for building dynamic and responsive data-driven web applications!

What’s inside

  • MongoDB 4, Express 4, Angular 7, and Node.js 11
  • MEAN stack architecture
  • Mobile-ready web apps
  • Best practices for efficiency and reusability

About the Reader

Readers should be comfortable with standard web application designs and ES2015-style JavaScript.

About the Author

Simon Holmes and Clive Harber are full-stack developers with decades of experience in JavaScript and other leading-edge web technologies.

Table of Contents

  1. Introducing full-stack development
  2. Designing a MEAN stack architecture
  3. Creating and setting up a MEAN project
  4. Building a static site with Node and Express
  5. Building a data model with MongoDB and Mongoose
  6. Writing a REST API: Exposing the MongoDB database to the application
  7. Consuming a REST API: Using an API from inside Express
  8. Creating an Angular application with TypeScript
  9. Building a single-page application with Angular: Foundations
  10. Building a single-page application with Angular: The next level
  11. Authenticating users, managing sessions, and securing APIs
  12. Using an authentication API in Angular applications

Categories
Bibliography Cloud DevOps JavaScript Software Engineering

Node.js in Action, Second Edition  – ISBN-13: 978-1617292576

See: Node.js in Action, Second Edition, Publisher ‏ : ‎ Manning Publications; 2nd edition (September 17, 2017)

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Summary

Node.js in Action, Second Edition is a thoroughly revised book based on the best-selling first edition. It starts at square one and guides you through all the features, techniques, and concepts you’ll need to build production-quality Node applications.

Purchase of the print book includes a free eBook in PDF, Kindle, and ePub formats from Manning Publications.

About the Technology

You already know JavaScript. The trick to mastering Node.js is learning how to build applications that fully exploit its powerful asynchronous event handling and non-blocking I/O features. The Node server radically simplifies event-driven real-time apps like chat, games, and live data analytics, and with its incredibly rich ecosystem of modules, tools, and libraries, it’s hard to beat!

About the Book

Based on the bestselling first edition, Node.js in Action, Second Edition is a completely new book. Packed with practical examples, it teaches you how to create high-performance web servers using JavaScript and Node. You’ll master key design concepts such as asynchronous programming, state management, and event-driven programming. And you’ll learn to put together MVC servers using Express and Connect, design web APIs, and set up the perfect production environment to build, lint, and test.

What’s Inside

  • Mastering non-blocking I/O
  • The Node event loop
  • Testing and deploying
  • Web application templating

About the Reader

Written for web developers with intermediate JavaScript skills.

About the Authors

The Second Edition author team includes Node masters Alex YoungBradley MeckMike Cantelon, and Tim Oxley, along with original authors Marc HarterT.J. Holowaychuk, and Nathan Rajlich.

Table of contents

  1. Welcome to Node.js
  2. Node programming fundamentals
  3. What is a Node web application?
  4. Front-end build systems
  5. Server-side frameworks
  6. Connect and Express in depth
  7. Web application templating
  8. Storing application data
  9. Testing Node applications
  10. Deploying Node applications and maintaining uptime
  11. Writing command-line applications
  12. Conquering the desktop with Electron

About this Book

The first edition of Node.js in Action was about web development with a particular focus on the Connect and Express web frameworks. Node.js in Action, Second Edition has been updated to suit the changing requirements of Node development. You’ll learn about front-end build systems, popular Node web frameworks, and how to build a web application with Express from scratch. You’ll also learn how to create automated tests and deploy Node web applications.

Node is being increasingly used for command-line developer tools and desktop applications with Electron, so you’ll find chapters dedicated to both of these areas.

This book assumes you’re familiar with basic programming concepts. The first chapter provides an overview of JavaScript and ES2015 for those of you who haven’t yet discovered the joys of modern JavaScript.

Roadmap

This book is organized into three parts.

Part 1 provides an introduction to Node.js, teaching the fundamental techniques needed to develop with it. Chapter 1 explains the characteristics of JavaScript and Node and steps through example code. Chapter 2 guides you through fundamental Node.js programming concepts. Chapter 3 is a full tutorial on how to build a web application from scratch.

Part 2, the largest section of the book, focuses on web application development. Chapter 4 dispels some of the mystery around front-end build systems: if you’ve ever had to use webpack or Gulp in a project but didn’t really understand it, this is the chapter for you. Chapter 5 reviews some of the most popular server-side frameworks available for Node, and chapter 6 goes into Connect and Express in more depth. Chapter 7 is dedicated to templating languages, which can improve your productivity when writing server-side code. Most web applications need a database, so chapter 8 covers the many types of databases that you can use with Node, from relational to NoSQL. Chapters 9 and 10 deal with testing and deployment, and this includes cloud deployment.

Part 3 goes beyond web application development. Chapter 11 is about building command-line applications with Node so you can create developer-friendly text interfaces. If you’re excited about the prospect of building desktop apps such as Atom with Node, then take a look at chapter 12, which is all about Electron.

We’ve also included three detailed appendixes. Appendix A has instructions on how to install Node for macOS and Windows. Appendix B is a detailed tutorial on web scraping, and appendix C reviews each of the officially supported middleware components for the Connect web framework.

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Angular Framework Bibliography JavaScript Software Engineering

Testing Angular Applications – ISBN-13: 978-1617293641

See: Testing Angular Applications, Publisher ‏ : ‎ Manning Publications; 1st edition (November 19, 2018)

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Summary

Testing Angular Applications is an example-rich, hands-on guide that gives you the real-world techniques you need to thoroughly test all parts of your Angular applications. By the end of this book, you’ll be able to confidently write unit and end-to-end tests for Angular applications in TypeScript.

Foreword by Brad Green, Google.

Purchase of the print book includes a free eBook in PDF, Kindle, and ePub formats from Manning Publications.

About the Technology

Don’t leave the success of your mission-critical Angular apps to chance. Proper testing improves code quality, reduces maintenance costs, and rewards you with happy users. New tools and best practices can streamline and automate all aspects of testing web apps, both in development and in production. This book gets you started.

About the Book

Testing Angular Applications teaches you how to make testing an essential part of your development and production processes. You’ll start by setting up a simple unit testing system as you learn the fundamental practices. Then, you’ll fine-tune it as you discover the best tests for Angular components, directives, pipes, services, and routing. Finally, you’ll explore end-to-end testing, mastering the Protractor framework, and inserting Angular apps into your continuous integration pipeline.

What’s inside

  • Getting to know TypeScript
  • Writing and debugging unit tests
  • Writing and debugging end-to-end tests with Protractor
  • Building continuous integration for your entire test suite

About the Reader

This book is for readers with intermediate JavaScript skills.

About the Author

Jesse Palmer is a senior engineering manager at Handshake. Corinna Cohn is a single-page web application specialist. Mike Giambalvo and Craig Nishina are engineers at Google.

Table of Contents

  1. Introduction to testing Angular applicationsPART 1 – Unit testing
  2. Creating your first tests
  3. Testing components
  4. Testing directives
  5. Testing pipes
  6. Testing services
  7. Testing the router
  8. Getting started with Protractor
  9. Understanding timeouts
  10. Advanced Protractor topics
  11. Continuous integration
  • Appendix A – Setting up the sample project
  • Appendix B – Additional resources

Categories
Bibliography Cloud DevOps DevSecOps-Security-Privacy Software Engineering

Securing DevOps: Security in the Cloud – ISBN-13: 978-1617294136

See: Securing DevOps: Security in the Cloud, Publisher ‏ : ‎ Manning Publications; 1st edition (August 24, 2018)

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Summary

Securing DevOps explores how the techniques of DevOps and security should be applied together to make cloud services safer. This introductory book reviews the latest practices used in securing web applications and their infrastructure and teaches you techniques to integrate security directly into your product. You’ll also learn the core concepts of DevOps, such as continuous integration, continuous delivery, and infrastructure as a service.

Purchase of the print book includes a free eBook in PDF, Kindle, and ePub formats from Manning Publications.

About the Technology

An application running in the cloud can benefit from incredible efficiencies, but they come with unique security threats too. A DevOps team’s highest priority is understanding those risks and hardening the system against them.

About the Book

Securing DevOps teaches you the essential techniques to secure your cloud services. Using compelling case studies, it shows you how to build security into automated testing, continuous delivery, and other core DevOps processes. This experience-rich book is filled with mission-critical strategies to protect web applications against attacks, deter fraud attempts, and make your services safer when operating at scale. You’ll also learn to identify, assess, and secure the unique vulnerabilities posed by cloud deployments and automation tools commonly used in modern infrastructures.

What’s inside

  • An approach to continuous security
  • Implementing test-driven security in DevOps
  • Security techniques for cloud services
  • Watching for fraud and responding to incidents
  • Security testing and risk assessment

About the Reader

Readers should be comfortable with Linux and standard DevOps practices like CI, CD, and unit testing.

About the Author

Julien Vehent is a security architect and DevOps advocate. He leads the Firefox Operations Security team at Mozilla, and is responsible for the security of Firefox’s high-traffic cloud services and public websites.

Table of Contents

  1. Securing DevOps
  2. Building a barebones DevOps pipeline
  3. Security layer 1: protecting web applications
  4. Security layer 2: protecting cloud infrastructures
  5. Security layer 3: securing communications
  6. Security layer 4: securing the delivery pipeline
  7. Collecting and storing logs
  8. Analyzing logs for fraud and attacks
  9. Detecting intrusions
  10. The Caribbean breach: a case study in incident response
  11. Assessing risks
  12. Testing security
  13. Continuous security

Categories
Bibliography Cloud DevOps GCP Software Engineering

Google Cloud Platform in Action – ISBN-13: 978-1617293528

See: Google Cloud Platform in Action, Publisher ‏ : ‎ Manning Publications; 1st edition (August 24, 2018)

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Summary

Google Cloud Platform in Action teaches you to build and launch applications that scale, leveraging the many services on GCP to move faster than ever. You’ll learn how to choose exactly the services that best suit your needs, and you’ll be able to build applications that run on Google Cloud Platform and start more quickly, suffer fewer disasters, and require less maintenance.

Purchase of the print book includes a free eBook in PDF, Kindle, and ePub formats from Manning Publications.

About the Technology

Thousands of developers worldwide trust Google Cloud Platform, and for good reason. With GCP, you can host your applications on the same infrastructure that powers Search, Maps, and the other Google tools you use daily. You get rock-solid reliability, an incredible array of prebuilt services, and a cost-effective, pay-only-for-what-you-use model. This book gets you started.

About the Book

Google Cloud Platform in Action teaches you how to deploy scalable cloud applications on GCP. Author and Google software engineer JJ Geewax is your guide as you try everything from hosting a simple WordPress web app to commanding cloud-based AI services for computer vision and natural language processing. Along the way, you’ll discover how to maximize cloud-based data storage, roll out serverless applications with Cloud Functions, and manage containers with Kubernetes. Broad, deep, and complete, this authoritative book has everything you need.

What’s inside

  • The many varieties of cloud storage and computing
  • How to make cost-effective choices
  • Hands-on code examples
  • Cloud-based machine learning

About the Reader

Written for intermediate developers. No prior cloud or GCP experience required.

About the Author

JJ Geewax is a software engineer at Google, focusing on Google Cloud Platform and API design.

Table of Contents

  1. What is “cloud”?
  2. Trying it out: deploying WordPress on Google Cloud
  3. The cloud data center
  4. Cloud SQL: managed relational storage
  5. Cloud Datastore: document storage
  6. Cloud Spanner: large-scale SQL
  7. Cloud Bigtable: large-scale structured data
  8. Cloud Storage: object storage
  9. Compute Engine: virtual machines
  10. Kubernetes Engine: managed Kubernetes clusters
  11. App Engine: fully managed applications
  12. Cloud Functions: serverless applications
  13. Cloud DNS: managed DNS hosting
  14. Cloud Vision: image recognition
  15. Cloud Natural Language: text analysis
  16. Cloud Speech: audio-to-text conversion
  17. Cloud Translation: multilanguage machine translation
  18. Cloud Machine Learning Engine: managed machine learning
  19. BigQuery: highly scalable data warehouse
  20. Cloud Dataflow: large-scale data processing
  21. Cloud Pub/Sub: managed event publishing
Categories
AWS Bibliography Cloud DevOps Software Engineering

Learn Amazon Web Services in a Month of Lunches – ISBN-13: 978-1617294440

See: Learn Amazon Web Services in a Month of Lunches, Publisher ‏ : ‎ Manning Publications; 1st edition (September 3, 2017)

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Summary

Learn Amazon Web Services in a Month of Lunches guides you through the process of building a robust and secure web application using the core AWS services you really need to know. You’ll be amazed by how much you can accomplish with AWS!

Purchase of the print book includes a free eBook in PDF, Kindle, and ePub formats from Manning Publications.

About the Technology

Cloud computing has transformed the way we build and deliver software. With the Amazon Web Services cloud platform, you can trade expensive glass room hardware and custom infrastructure for virtual servers and easy-to-configure storage, security, and networking services. Better, because you don’t own the hardware, you only pay for the computing power you need! Just learn a few key ideas and techniques and you can have applications up and running in AWS in minutes.

About the Book

Learn Amazon Web Services in a Month of Lunches gets you started with AWS fast. In just 21 bite-size lessons, you’ll learn the concepts and practical techniques you need to deploy and manage applications. You’ll learn by doing real-world labs that guide you from the core AWS tool set through setting up security and storage and planning for growth. You’ll even deploy a public-facing application that’s highly available, scalable, and load balanced.

What’s Inside

  • First steps with AWS – no experience required
  • Deploy web apps using EC2, RDS, S3, and Route 53
  • Cheap and fast system backups
  • Setting up cloud automation

About the Reader

If you know your way around Windows or Linux and have a basic idea of how web applications work, you’re ready to start using AWS.

About the Author

David Clinton is a system administrator, teacher, and writer. He has administered, written about, and created training materials for many important technology subjects including Linux systems, cloud computing (AWS in particular), and container technologies like Docker. Many of his video training courses can be found on Pluralsight.com, and links to his other books (on Linux administration and server virtualization) can be found at https://bootstrap-it.com.

Table of Contents

  1. Before you begin
  2. The 10-minute EC2 web server
  3. Provisioning a more robust EC2 website
  4. Databases on AWS
  5. DNS: what’s in a name?
  6. S3: cheap, fast file storage
  7. S3: cheap, fast system backups
  8. AWS security: working with IAM users, groups, and roles
  9. Managing growth
  10. Pushing back against the chaos: using resource tags
  11. CloudWatch: monitoring AWS resources for fun and profit
  12. Another way to play: the command-line interface
  13. Keeping ahead of user demand
  14. High availability: working with AWS networking tools
  15. High availability: load balancing
  16. High availability: auto scaling
  17. High availability: content-delivery networks
  18. Building hybrid infrastructure
  19. Cloud automation: working with Elastic Beanstalk, Docker, and Lambda
  20. Everything else (nearly)
  21. Never the end

Categories
Android OS Apple iOS Artificial Intelligence AWS Azure Bibliography C Language C# .NET C++ Cloud Data Science - Big Data DevOps DevSecOps-Security-Privacy GCP Go Programming Language Java JavaScript Kotlin Kubernetes Linux Networking Operating Systems PowerShell Python React Software Engineering Spring Framework SRE - Reliability engineering - Chaos engineer Swift TypeScript Vue.js Framework Windows Server

Manning Publications

See also Java Bibliography, JavaScript Bibliography, Python Bibliography

Manning publishes the best quality IT books in the industry.

Manning is an independent publisher, providing computer books for software developers, engineers, architects, system administrators, and managers. Our books also cover topics for young programmers, students, and occasionally children.

summary

Manning is an independent publisher of computer books and video courses for software developers, engineers, architects, system administrators, managers and all who are professionally involved with the computer business. We also publish for students and young programmers, including occasionally for children. We are an entirely virtual organization based on Shelter Island, New York, with many staff working from far-flung places like Manila and Zagreb.

company character

“Independent” means we are not owned by a large corporate entity and are free to make decisions without bureaucratic overhead. That has allowed us to innovate and be flexible and to quickly adjust what we do as we go. We were the first by several years to sell our books as unprotected PDFs, something that later became commonplace. We were the first to start selling books before they were finished, in the Manning Early Access Program. This gave our readers access to our content as soon as it was readable, and this too has become common in the industry. And it means we are thinking every day about new ways to satisfy our customers, some of which we hope you will be pleased to discover in the not-too-distant future.

how we improve

We published our first book in 1993 and have been learning from our successes, and even more from our mistakes, ever since. Every new book teaches us something that helps us improve:

  • How to choose the topics we publish on
  • How to find the right authors for each book
  • How to help authors write the best books they can
  • How to ensure the content is valuable and easy to learn
  • How to let readers know about our content

book series

We publish standalone titles as well as the following book series:

  • Hello!
  • In Action
  • In Practice
  • In Depth
  • In a Month of Lunches

availability

Readers can access our books through the Manning Early Access Program, O’Reilly Learning (formerly Safari Books Online), and iBooks. Print copies, wherever they are bought, come with free electronic versions in PDF, ePub and Kindle formats. With your print copy in hand, register it on the Manning site and you can download the digital versions from your account.

At this time, our eBooks are available only from Manning.com and Apple’s iBookstore.

https://www.manning.com/manning

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Techopedia.com

Fair Use Source: techopedia.com (TcPd)

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AWS Azure Bibliography Cloud DevOps DevSecOps-Security-Privacy GCP Kubernetes Linux Operating Systems Software Engineering

Operations Anti-patterns, DevOps Solutions

Fair Use Source: 978-1617296987 (OADS)

Operations Anti-patterns, DevOps Solutions, by Jeffery D. Smith

Book Details

Fair Use Source: 978-1617296987 (OADS)

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Artificial Intelligence Bibliography Cloud Data Science - Big Data DevOps Hardware and Electronics History Networking Software Engineering

Oxford Dictionary of Computer Science

Fair Use Source: B019GXM8X8 (ODCS)

A Dictionary of Computer Science (Oxford Quick Reference) 7th Edition, by Editors Andrew Butterfield, Gerard Ngondi, Anne Kerr

Previously named A Dictionary of Computing, this bestselling dictionary has been renamed A Dictionary of Computer Science, and fully revised by a team of computer specialists, making it the most up-to-date and authoritative guide to computing available. Containing over 6,500 entries and with expanded coverage of multimedia, computer applications, networking, and personal computer science, it is a comprehensive reference work encompassing all aspects of the subject and is as valuable for home and office users as it is indispensable for students of computer science.

Terms are defined in a jargon-free and concise manner with helpful examples where relevant. The dictionary contains approximately 150 new entries including cloud computing, cross-site scripting, iPad, semantic attack, smartphone, and virtual learning environment. Recommended web links for many entries, accessible via the Dictionary of Computer Science companion website, provide valuable further information and the appendices include useful resources such as generic domain names, file extensions, and the Greek alphabet.

This dictionary is suitable for anyone who uses computers, and is ideal for students of computer science and the related fields of IT, maths, physics, media communications, electronic engineering, and natural sciences.

Book Details

  • ASIN : B019GXM8X8
  • Publisher : OUP Oxford; 7th edition (January 28, 2016)
  • Publication date : January 28, 2016
  • Print length : 641 pages
  • First edition 1983, Second edition 1986, Third edition 1990, Fourth edition 1996, Fifth edition 2004, Sixth edition 2008, Seventh edition 2016
  • ISBN 978–0–19–968897–5, ebook ISBN 978–0–19–100288–5

Preface

“The first edition of this dictionary was published in 1983 as a specialist reference work for computer professionals and for people interested in the underlying concepts and theories of computer science. Over successive editions, the work has been expanded and changed to reflect the technological and social changes that have occurred, especially the enormous growth in home computing and the Internet. In particular, the fourth edition (1996) included an additional 1700 entries catering for a wider readership. At the same time, the editors have retained the basic principles of the original book.”

“In the seventh edition of the dictionary we have followed the same line. The existing entries have been updated and over 120 new entries have been added. In particular, coverage of areas such as database management and social networking has been increased to reflect the growing importance of these areas. Some obsolete terms have been deleted, although some have been kept for their historical interest. Links to useful websites have been updated and more added. There are also six special feature spreads, giving information on selected topics.”

JL, ASK, 2015

Guide to the Dictionary

“Synonyms and generally used abbreviations are given either in brackets immediately after the relevant entry title, or occasionally in the text of the entry with some additional information or qualification.”

“A distinction is made between an acronym and an abbreviation: an acronym can be pronounced while an abbreviation cannot. The entry for an acronym usually appears at the acronym itself, whereas the entry for an abbreviation may appear either at the unabbreviated form or at the abbreviation—depending on which form is most commonly used. When a term is defined under an abbreviation, the entry for the unabbreviated form simply cross-refers the reader to the abbreviation.”

“Some terms listed in the dictionary are used both as nouns and verbs. This is usually indicated in the text of an entry if both forms are in common use. In many cases a noun is also used in an adjectival form to qualify another noun. This occurs too often to be noted.”

Fair Use Source: B019GXM8X8 (ODCS)

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Cloud History Software Engineering

Vannevar Bush’s “As We May Think” – 1945 A.D.

Return to Timeline of the History of Computers

1945

“As We May Think”

Vannevar Bush (1890–1974)

“In 1945, Vannevar Bush—inventor of the differential analyzer who went on to head the US Office of Scientific Research and Development during World War II—authored a profoundly prescient and influential essay about the coming information age. Entitled “As We May Think,” the essay was first published in the July 1945 issue of the Atlantic Monthly. In it, Bush wrote that only by using technology would it be possible for people to keep up with the massive amount of knowledge that the world was on the cusp of creating. “The summation of human experience is being expanded at a prodigious rate,” he stated, “and the means we use for threading through the consequent maze to the momentarily important item is the same as was used in the days of square-rigged ships.”

With the end of World War II in sight, Bush was trying to set a new direction for scientific research—a path of peaceful intent that would benefit humanity, in contrast with the role he had played overseeing the Manhattan Project and helping to develop the atomic bomb. In the essay, Bush elegantly predicted much of today’s technology, including speech recognition, the internet, the World Wide Web, online encyclopedias, hypertext, personal digital assistants, touchscreens, and interactive user-interface design.

The central challenge he focused on was how information should be organized. Bush found the dominant numerical and alphabetical systems to be ineffective. Rather, he believed the human mind stores and makes sense of information through association, as our thoughts snap from one idea to the next, creating original context and meaning.

His theoretical alternative to taxonomic organization was the memex, short for “memory extender.” The memex would enable individuals to create their own trails, recordings of the evolution of thought on a topic and associated information sources. The device would be in the form of an electromechanical desk with a keyboard, dual screens, encyclopedia and easily accessible articles contained on microfilm (stored on reels inside the desk), a stylus for adding one’s own notes directly to the screens, and a way to link people’s trails.

With the exception of the microfilm, Bush pretty much nailed it.”

SEE ALSO Electronic Speech Synthesis (1928), Differential Analyzer (1931) Mother of All Demos (1968)

“Vannevar Bush’s essay “As We May Think” foretold many future developments in the field of computer science.”


As We May Think” is a 1945 essay by Vannevar Bush which has been described as visionary and influential, anticipating many aspects of information society. It was first published in The Atlantic in July 1945 and republished in an abridged version in September 1945—before and after the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. Bush expresses his concern for the direction of scientific efforts toward destruction, rather than understanding, and explicates a desire for a sort of collective memory machine with his concept of the memex that would make knowledge more accessible, believing that it would help fix these problems. Through this machine, Bush hoped to transform an information explosion into a knowledge explosion.[1]

The Memex (3002477109).jpg
AuthorVannevar Bush
LanguageEnglish
Genre(s)essay/article (about 10 pages long)
Published inThe Atlantic
Media typePrint
Publication dateJuly 1945

Concept creation

The article was a reworked and expanded version of Bush’s essay “Mechanization and the Record” (1939). Here, he described a machine that would combine lower level technologies to achieve a higher level of organized knowledge (like human memory processes). Shortly after the publication of this essay, Bush coined the term “memex” in a letter written to the editor of Fortune magazine.[2] That letter became the body of “As We May Think”, which added only an introduction and conclusion. As described, Bush’s memex was based on what was thought, at the time, to be advanced technology of the future: ultra high resolution microfilm reels, coupled to multiple screen viewers and cameras, by electromechanical controls. The memex, in essence, reflects a library of collective knowledge stored in a piece of machinery described in his essay as “a piece of furniture”.[3] The Atlantic publication of Bush’s article was followed, in the September 10, 1945, issue of Life magazine, by a reprint that showed illustrations of the proposed memex desk and automatic typewriter. (Coincidentally, the same issue of Life contained aerial photos of Hiroshima after the dropping of the atomic bomb, a project Bush was instrumental in starting). Bush also discussed other technologies such as dry photography and microphotography where he elaborates on the potentialities of their future use. For example, Bush states in his essay that:

The combination of optical projection and photographic reduction is already producing some results in microfilm for scholarly purposes, and the potentialities are highly suggestive.— Vannevar Bush[3]

Vannevar Bush

Concept realization

“As We May Think” predicted (to some extent) many kinds of technology invented after its publication, including hypertextpersonal computers, the Internet, the World Wide Webspeech recognition, and online encyclopedias such as Wikipedia: “Wholly new forms of encyclopedias will appear, ready-made with a mesh of associative trails running through them, ready to be dropped into the memex and there amplified.”[3] Bush envisioned the ability to retrieve several articles or pictures on one screen, with the possibility of writing comments that could be stored and recalled together. He believed people would create links between related articles, thus mapping the thought process and path of each user and saving it for others to experience. Wikipedia is one example of how this vision has in part been realized, allowing elements of an article to reference other related topics. A user’s browser history maps the trails of possible paths of interaction, although this is typically available only to the user that created it. Bush’s article also laid the foundation for new media. Doug Engelbart came across the essay shortly after its publication, and keeping the memex in mind, he began work that would eventually result in the invention of the mouse, the word processor, the hyperlink and concepts of new media for which these groundbreaking inventions were merely enabling technologies.[1]

Today, storage has greatly surpassed the level imagined by Vannevar Bush,

The Encyclopædia Britannica could be reduced to the volume of a matchbox. A library of a million volumes could be compressed into one end of a desk.— Vannevar Bush[3]

On the other hand, it still uses methods of indexing of information which Bush described as artificial:

When data of any sort are placed in storage, they are filed alphabetically or numerically, and information is found (when it is) by tracing it down from subclass to subclass. It can be in only one place, unless duplicates are used.— Vannevar Bush[3]

This description resembles popular file systems of modern computer operating systems (FATNTFSext3 when used without hard links and symlinks, etc.), which do not easily enable associative indexing as imagined by Bush.

Outlook in the use of science

Bush urges that scientists should turn to the massive task of creating more efficient accessibility to our fluctuating store of knowledge. For years inventions have extended people’s physical powers rather than the powers of their mind. He argues that the instruments are at hand which, if properly developed, will give society access to and command over the inherited knowledge of the ages. The perfection of these pacific instruments, he suggests, should be the first objective of our scientists.[3]

Through this process, society would be able to focus and evolve past the existing knowledge rather than looping through infinite calculations. We should be able to pass the tedious work of numbers to machines and work on the intricate theory which puts them best to use. If humanity were able to obtain the “privilege of forgetting the manifold things he does not need to have immediately at hand, with some assurance that he can find them again if proven important” only then “will mathematics be practically effective in bringing the growing knowledge of atomistic to the useful solution of the advanced problems of chemistry, metallurgy, and biology”.[1] To exemplify the importance of this concept, consider the process involved in ‘simple’ shopping: “Every time a charge sale is made, there are a number of things to be done. The inventory needs to be revised, the salesman needs to be given credit for the sale, the general accounts need an entry, and most important, the customer needs to be charged.”[1] Due to the convenience of the store’s central device which rapidly manage thousands of these transactions, the employees may focus on the essential aspects of the department such as sales and advertising.

Indeed, as of today, “science has provided the swiftest communication between individuals; it has provided a record of ideas and has enabled man to manipulate and to make extracts from that record so that knowledge evolves and endures throughout the life of a race rather than of an individual”.[1] Improved technology has become an extension of our capabilities, much as how external hard drives function for computers so it may reserve more memory for more practical tasks.

Another significant role of practicality in technology is the method of association and selection. “There may be millions of fine thoughts, and the account of the experience on which they are based, all encased within stone walls of acceptable architectural form; but if the scholar can get at only one a week by diligent search, his synthesis are not likely to keep up with the current scene.”[1] Bush believes that the tools available in his time lacked this feature, but noted the emergence and development of such ideas such as the Memex, a cross referencing system.

Bush concludes his essay by stating that:

The applications of science have built man a well-supplied house, and are teaching him to live healthily therein. They have enabled him to throw masses of people against one another with cruel weapons. They may yet allow him truly to encompass the great record and to grow in the wisdom of race experience. He may perish in conflict before he learns to wield that record for his true good. Yet, in the application of science to the needs and desires of man, it would seem to be a singularly unfortunate stage at which to terminate the process, or to lose hope as to the outcome.— Vannevar Bush[3]

Outline

Many scientists, especially physicists, get new duties during the War. Now, after the war, they need new duties.

Section 1: The use of Science has improved tremendously in many ways for humans. The knowledge of science has grown considerably. However, the way we manage knowledge has remained the same for centuries. We are no longer able to access the breadth of scientific breakthroughs. Alternatively, the technology has matured greatly and allows us to now produce complicated, yet cheap and dependable machines.

Section 2: Science is really useful. However, in order to have it to be very efficient and useful it should not only be stored but also be frequently consulted and enhanced. In the future Bush predicts humans will be able to store human writings in a small room with the use of photography and microfilm.

Section 3: Using the latest advances of speech recording and stenography, we will soon be able to make printing immediate. The advancement of photography is not going to stop. Further, simple repetitive tasks, like mathematic problems, can be delegated to machines. Electrical machines will be the advancement of arithmetical computation.

Section 4: There is more to the scientific reasoning than just arithmetic. There are a few machines that are not used for arithmetic, partly due to the market’s needs. Solving higher mathematics require other repetitive processes of thought to be mechanized.

Section 5: A machine could be used anywhere where there is logical thought process. At this moment we do not have the necessary tools for the selection (the key to utilize science) of knowledge. One of the best forms of selection is illustrated by the automatic telephone exchange.

Section 6: There is a problem with selection. The main problem of it is the deficiency of the indexing systems. When data is recorded and put into storage, it is usually filed alphabetically or numerically. The human mind works differently. It works according to association. Instead of using selection by indexing, selection by association may be mechanized. Thus, improving the permanence and clarity of the items stored. The memex is a device that could store information and communication (large memory). Some things that can be entered are, newspaper and books. The user is also able to find a particular book as he or she taps on its code on the keyboard. The codes that are frequently used to call forth pages are mnemonic and its possible to browse these pages at different speeds.

Section 7: The main feature of the memex is the ability to tie two things together at will. In other words, to be able to associate two arbitrary items when wanted. The user is also able to build a trail, in which they name it, insert a name into the code book, and then taps it out on the keyboard. At any time, the user is able to view two items at the same time, parallel viewing. It is also possible to pass items to another memex.

Section 8: The trails made can be shared with others and can also be published, like an encyclopedia (many more new forms are to appear). Soon we will be able to establish some kind of direct connection with absorbing material of the record with one of our senses, tactilely, orally, and visually. It would be great for humans to be able analyze present issues. As of now, science has been applied to live better, as well as for destruction. Possibly we may be able to apply the record to become wiser.

Critical opinion

“As We May Think” has turned out to be a visionary and influential essay. In their introduction to a paper discussing information literacy as a discipline, Johnston and Webber write

Bush’s paper might be regarded as describing a microcosm of the information society, with the boundaries tightly drawn by the interests and experiences of a major scientist of the time, rather than the more open knowledge spaces of the 21st century. Bush provides a core vision of the importance of information to industrial/scientific society, using the image of an “information explosion” arising from the unprecedented demands on scientific production and technological application of World War II. He outlines a version of information science as a key discipline within the practice of scientific and technical knowledge domains. His view encompasses the problems of information overload and the need to devise efficient mechanisms to control and channel information for use.— Johnston and Webber[4]

Indeed, Bush was very concerned with information overload inhibiting the research efforts of scientists. His scientist, operating under conditions of “information explosion” and requiring respite from the tide of scientific documents could be construed as a nascent image of the “Information Literate Person” in an information saturated society.

There is a growing mountain of research. But there is increased evidence that we are being bogged down today as specialization extends. The investigator is staggered by the findings and conclusions of thousands of other workers.— Vannevar Bush[3]

Schools, colleges, health care, government, etc., are all implicated in the distribution and use of information, under similar conditions of “information explosion” as Bush’s post-war scientists. All these people arguably need some sort of personal “information control” in order to function.— Bill Johnston, Sheila Webber[4]

See also

References

  1. a b c d e f Wardrip-Fruin, Noah; Montfort, Nick (2003). The New Media Reader. The MIT Press. ISBN 9780262232272.
  2. ^ Nyce, James M.; Kahn, Paul W. (1991). From Memex to Hypertext – Vannevar Bush and the Mind’s Machine. Academic Press. ISBN 9781493301713.
  3. a b c d e f g h Bush, Vannevar (July 1945). “As We May Think”The Atlantic Monthly176 (1): 101–108.
  4. a b Johnston; Webber (2006). “As We May Think: Information literacy as a discipline for the information age”. Research Strategies20 (3): 108–121. doi:10.1016/j.resstr.2006.06.005.

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