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JavaScript Software Engineering

Angular web application framework – TypeScript-based

See also: JavaScript, JavaScript Bibliography and Bibliography of JavaScript Libraries and Web Frameworks

Angular full color logo.svg
Developer(s)Google
Initial release2.0 / 14 September 2016; 4 years ago[1]
Stable release11.2.3[2]  / 24 February 2021; 7 days ago
Preview release12.0.0-next.2 / 24 February 2021; 7 days ago[3]
RepositoryAngular Repository
Written inTypeScript
PlatformWeb platform
TypeWeb framework
LicenseMIT License
Websiteangular.io

Angular (commonly referred to as “Angular 2+” or “Angular v2 and above“)[4][5] is a TypeScript-based open-source web application framework led by the Angular Team at Google and by a community of individuals and corporations. Angular is a complete rewrite from the same team that built AngularJS.” (WP)

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Angular Framework Bibliography JavaScript React Software Engineering Vue.js Framework

Bibliography of JavaScript Libraries and Web Frameworks

See also: React.js Bibliography, JavaScript, JavaScript Bibliography, JavaScript Reference Materials

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History JavaScript Software Engineering TypeScript

TypeScript Programming Language Invented by Microsoft and Anders Hejlsberg – 2012 AD

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TypeScript Programming Language

TypeScript is a programming language developed and maintained by Microsoft. It is a strict syntactical superset of JavaScript and adds optional static typing to the language. TypeScript is designed for development of large applications and transcompiles to JavaScript.[4] As TypeScript is a superset of JavaScript, existing JavaScript programs are also valid TypeScript programs.

TypeScript may be used to develop JavaScript applications for both client-side and server-side execution (as with Node.js or Deno). There are multiple options available for transcompilation. Either the default TypeScript Checker can be used,[5] or the Babel compiler can be invoked to convert TypeScript to JavaScript.

TypeScript supports definition files that can contain type information of existing JavaScript libraries, much like C++ header files can describe the structure of existing object files. This enables other programs to use the values defined in the files as if they were statically typed TypeScript entities. There are third-party header files for popular libraries such as jQueryMongoDB, and D3.js. TypeScript headers for the Node.js basic modules are also available, allowing development of Node.js programs within TypeScript.[6]

The TypeScript compiler is itself written in TypeScript and compiled to JavaScript. It is licensed under the Apache License 2.0. TypeScript is included as a first-class programming language in Microsoft Visual Studio 2013 Update 2 and later, beside C# and other Microsoft languages.[7] An official extension allows Visual Studio 2012 to support TypeScript as well.[8] Anders Hejlsberg, lead architect of C# and creator of Delphi and Turbo Pascal, has worked on the development of TypeScript.[9][10][11][12]

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