|ALGOL, first structured, procedural, programming language to be released.|
|1960||UK||Compiler compiler, first compiler compiler is released.|
|1961||USA||APL programming language released by Kenneth Iverson at IBM.|
|1961||USA||The AN/UYK-1 (TRW-130) computer was designed with rounded edges to fit through the hatch of ballistic missile submarines, as part of the first satellite navigation system, Transit.|
|1961||USA||Molecular Electronic Computer, first integrated circuits general-purpose computer (build for demonstration purposes, programmed to simulate a desk calculator) was built by Texas Instruments for the US Air Force.|
|1962||UK||ATLAS is completed by the University of Manchester team.This machine introduced many modern architectural concepts: spooling, interrupts, pipelining, interleaved memory, virtual memory and paging. It was the most powerful machine in the world at the time of release.|
|1962||USA||Work begun on the LINC, the brainchild of the M.I.T. physicist Wesley A. Clark in May 1961. It was the first functional prototype of a computer scaled down to be optimized and priced for the individual user (about $43,600 – equivalent to $368,500 in 2019). Used for the first time at the National Institutes of Mental Health in Bethesda, Maryland in 1963, many consider it to be the first personal computer, despite the big dimension of some elements, e.g. the memory rack.|
|1962||USA||Spacewar!, an early and highly influential computer game, is written by MIT student Steve Russell.The game ran on a DEC PDP-1, competing players fired at each other’s space ships using an early version of joystick.|
|1963||USA||Mouse conceived by Douglas EngelbartThe Mouse was not to become popular until 1983 with Apple Computer‘s Lisa and Macintosh and not adopted by IBM until 1987 – although compatible computers such as the Amstrad PC1512 were fitted with mice before this date.|
|1964||USA||Computers built between 1964 and 1972 are often regarded as “third-generation” computers; they are based on the first integrated circuits – creating even smaller machines. Typical of such machines were the HP 2116A and Data General Nova.|
|1964||USA||Programming language PL/I released by IBM.|
|1964||USA||Launch of IBM System/360 – the first series of compatible computers, reversing and stopping the evolution of separate “business” and “scientific” machine architectures; all models used the same basic instruction set architecture and register sizes, in theory allowing programs to be migrated to more or less powerful models as needs changed. The basic unit of memory, the “byte”, was defined as 8 bits, with larger units such as “words” defined with sizes that were multiples of 8, with many consequences. Many competing computers at the time used word sizes that were multiples of 6. The marketing term “IBM Compatible” was often used, at this time, to indicate that the architecture used 8-bit bytes. Over 14,000 were shipped by 1968.|
|1964||USA||Project MAC begun at MIT by J.C.R. Licklider:several terminals all across campus will be connected to a central computer, using a timesharing mechanism. Bulletin boards and email are popular applications.|
|1964||USA||Sabre (computer system) launched.|
|1965||USA||DEC PDP-8 Mini Computer. The first minicomputer, built by Digital Equipment (DEC). It cost US$18,500 (equivalent to about $150,100 in 2019).|
|1965||USA||Moore’s law published by Gordon Moore. Originally suggesting processor complexity doubled every year.It was published in the 35th Anniversary edition of Electronics magazine. The law was revised in 1975 to suggest a doubling in complexity every two years.|
|1965||USA||Fuzzy logic designed by Lofti Zadeh (University of California, Berkeley), it is used to process approximate data – such as ‘about 100’.|
|1965||USA||Programming language BASIC (Beginners All Purpose Symbolic Instruction Code) developed at Dartmouth College, USA, by Thomas E. Kurtz and John George Kemeny.BASIC was not implemented on microcomputers until 1975. This was the first language designed to be used in a time-sharing environment, such as DTSS (Dartmouth Time-Sharing System), or GCOS.|
|1965||USA||Packet switching, funded by ARPA was developed. This makes reliable computer networking possible.The first computer-to-computer login does not occur until November 21, 1969, between Stanford and UCLA.|
|1965||USA||The first supercomputer, the Control Data CDC 6600, was developed.|
|1966||USA||Hewlett-Packard entered the general-purpose computer business with its HP-2116A for computation, offering power formerly found only in much larger computers. It supported a wide variety of languages, among them ALGOL, BASIC, and FORTRAN.|
|1967||USA/CH||Development of programming language Pascal begun, continued in Switzerland from 1968 to 1971. Based on ALGOL. Developed by Niklaus Wirth as a pedagogic tool.|
|1967||USA||The floppy disk is invented at IBMunder the direction of Alan Shugart, for use as a microprogram load device for the System/370 and peripheral controllers.|
|1968||USA||Intel founded by Robert Noyce and a few friends.|
|1968||USA||Programming language LOGO developed by Wally Feurzeig, Seymour Papert, and Cynthia Solomon at MIT.|
|1968||USA||Release of Hewlett-Packard 9100A, the programmable calculator (first scientific calculator) from HP.|
|1968||USA||But what … is it good for?— Engineer at the Advanced Computing Systems Division of IBM commenting on the microchip.|
|2 Oct 1968||GER||First computer ball mouse offered by Telefunken. The device named Rollkugel RKS 100-86 is based on “reversing” an earlier trackball-like device (also named Rollkugel) embedded into radar flight control desks, which had been developed around 1965 by a team led by Rainer Mallebrein at Telefunken Konstanz for the German Bundesanstalt für Flugsicherung [de] as part of their TR 86 process computer system with its SIG 100-86 vector graphics terminal.|
|9 Dec 1968||USA||Douglas Engelbart demonstrates interactive computing,at the Fall Joint Computer Conference in San Francisco: mouse, on-screen windows, hypertext and full-screen word processing.|
|1969||USA||ARPANET begun by the United States Department of Defense for research into networking.It is the original basis for what now forms the Internet. It was opened to non-military users later in the 1970s and many universities and large businesses went on-line.|
|1969||USA||Development of UNIX operating system begun.It was later released as C source code to aid portability, and subsequently versions are obtainable for many different computers, including the IBM PC. It and its clones (such as Linux) are still widely used on network servers and scientific workstations. Originally developed by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie.|
|7 Apr 1969||USA||The first Request for Comments, RFC 1 published. The RFCs (network working group, Request For Comment) are a series of papers which are used to develop and define protocols for networking; originally the basis for ARPANET, there are now thousands of them applying to all aspects of the Internet. Collectively they document everything about the way the Internet and computers on it should behave, whether its TCP/IP networking or how email headers should be written there will be a set of RFCs describing it.|
|1969||?||Introduction of the RS-232 (serial interface) standard by EIA (Electronic Industries Association), one of the oldest serial interfaces still (uncommonly) in use today.|
|1969||USA||Data General shipped a total of 50,000 Novas at US$8,000 each. The Nova was one of the first 16-bit minicomputers and led the way toward word lengths that were multiples of the 8-bit byte. It was first to employ medium-scale integration (MSI) circuits from Fairchild Semiconductor, with subsequent models using large-scale integrated (LSI) circuits. Also notable was that the entire central processor was contained on one 15-inch printed circuit board.|
- ^ https://www.computerhistory.org/siliconengine/metal-oxide-semiconductor-mos-transistor-demonstrated/
- ^ https://www.computerhistory.org/atchm/who-invented-the-transistor/
- ^ https://www.computerhistory.org/siliconengine/practical-monolithic-integrated-circuit-concept-patented/
- ^ “Molecular Electronic Computer brochure | 102646283 | Computer History Museum”. www.computerhistory.org. Retrieved 2018-03-13.
- ^ history-computer.com: LINC
- ^ a b c Matthew Kirschenbaum (July 2013), “10 Most Influential Software Programs Ever”, Slate, USA
- ^ Stefan Betschon: Der Zauber des Anfangs – Schweizer Computerpioniere. In: Ingenieure bauen die Schweiz. Franz Betschon et al. (editors), pp. 376–399, Verlag Neue Zuercher Zeitung, Zurich 2013, ISBN 978-3-03823-791-4
- ^ “Auf den Spuren der deutschen Computermaus” [In the footsteps of the German computer mouse] (in German). Heise Verlag. 2009-04-28. Retrieved 2013-01-07.
- ^ “Telefunken’s ‘Rollkugel'”. oldmouse.com.
- ^ “SIG-100 video terminal and mouse”.
- ^ a b Paul Ford (April 2014), The Great Works of Software – via Medium
- ^ “The man who made ‘the world’s first personal computer'”, BBC News, 6 November 2015
- ^ a b Cornell University Library (2003). “Digital Preservation and Technology Timeline”. Digital Preservation Management. USA. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
- ^ a b IBM Archives Archived 2003-02-10 at Archive.today
- ^ Friedl, Paul J. (November 1983). “SCAMP: The Missing Link In The PC’s Past?”. PC. pp. 190–197. Retrieved 8 January 2015.
- ^ see 6502 microprocessor history
- ^ Steven Weyhrich (28 December 2001). “Apple II History Chapter 5, The Disk II”. Archived from the original on 1 December 2006. Retrieved 27 November 2008.
- ^ Christopher Null (April 2007), “50 Best Tech Products of All Time”, PC World, USA
- A Brief History of Computing, by Stephen White. An excellent computer history site; the present article is a modified version of his timeline, used with permission.