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Operating systems (OS)

An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardwaresoftware resources, and provides common services for computer programs.

Time-sharing operating systems schedule tasks for efficient use of the system and may also include accounting software for cost allocation of processor timemass storage, printing, and other resources.

For hardware functions such as input and output and memory allocation, the operating system acts as an intermediary between programs and the computer hardware,[1][2] although the application code is usually executed directly by the hardware and frequently makes system calls to an OS function or is interrupted by it. Operating systems are found on many devices that contain a computer – from cellular phones and video game consoles to web servers and supercomputers.

The dominant general-purpose[3] desktop operating system is Microsoft Windows with a market share of around 76.45%. macOS by Apple Inc. is in second place (17.72%), and the varieties of Linux are collectively in third place (1.73%).[4] In the mobile sector (including smartphones and tablets), Android’s share is up to 72% in the year 2020.[5] According to third quarter 2016 data, Android’s share on smartphones is dominant with 87.5 percent with also a growth rate of 10.3 percent per year, followed by Apple’s iOS with 12.1 percent with per year decrease in market share of 5.2 percent, while other operating systems amount to just 0.3 percent.[6] Linux distributions are dominant in the server and supercomputing sectors. Other specialized classes of operating systems (special-purpose operating systems)[7][8]), such as embedded and real-time systems, exist for many applications. Security-focused operating systems also exist. Some operating systems have low system requirements (i.e. light-weight Linux distribution). Others may have higher system requirements.

Some operating systems require installation or may come pre-installed with purchased computers (OEM-installation), whereas others may run directly from media (i.e. live cd) or flash memory (i.e. usb stick).

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Udemy, Inc. is an American massive open online course (MOOC) provider aimed at professional adults and students. It was founded in May 2010 by Eren Bali, Gagan Biyani, and Oktay Caglar.

As of February 2021, the platform has more than 40 million students, 155,000 courses and 70,000 instructors teaching courses in over 65 languages. There have been over 480 million course enrollments. Students and instructors come from 180+ countries and 2/3 of the students are located outside of the U.S.[3]

Students take courses largely as a means of improving job-related skills.[4] Some courses generate credit toward technical certification. Udemy has made a special effort to attract corporate trainers seeking to create coursework for employees of their company.[5] As of 2021, there are more than 155,000 courses on the website.[6][3]

The headquarters of Udemy is located in San Francisco, California, with offices in Denver, Colorado; Dublin, Ireland; Ankara, Turkey; Sao Paulo, Brazil; and Gurugram, India.[7]



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Microsoft Glossary of Terms – Windows – Azure – Office365 – PowerShell – C# .NET

Microsoft Glossary of Terms – Windows – Azure – Office365 – PowerShell – C# .NET

Fair Use Source: TTG

Microsoft Windows This glossary contains terms related to Microsoft software for operating systems, e-mail, collaboration, backup and recovery, server hardware, storage management, infrastructure security and server virtualization.” (TTG)

  • Active Directory – “Active Directory (AD) is Microsoft’s proprietary directory service.” (TTG)
  • Active Directory functional levels – “Active Directory functional levels are controls that specify which advanced Active Directory domain features can be used in an enterprise domain.” (TTG)
  • ActiveX – “ActiveX is a set of object-oriented programming technologies Microsoft developed for Internet Explorer to facilitate rich media playback.” (TTG)
  • ActiveX control – “An ActiveX control is a component program object that can be re-used by many application programs within a computer or among computers in a network.” (TTG)
  • Azure Container Instances – “Azure Container Instances is a service that enables a developer to deploy containers on the Microsoft Azure public cloud without having to provision or manage any underlying infrastructure.” (TTG)
  • Azure HDInsight – “Azure HDInsight is a cloud-based service from Microsoft for big data analytics that helps organizations process large amounts of streaming or historical data.” (TTG)
  • Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) – “Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) is a managed container orchestration service, based on the open source Kubernetes system, which is available on the Microsoft Azure public cloud.” (TTG)
  • Azure Migrate – “Azure Migrate is a Microsoft service that helps an enterprise assess how its on-premises workloads will perform, and how much they will cost to host, in the Azure public cloud.” (TTG)
  • Azure Notification Hubs – “Azure Notification Hubs are push notification engines designed to update users with alerts about new content for a given site, service or app.” (TTG)
  • Azure Quantum – “Azure Quantum is a full-stack cloud service designed to allow users remote access to quantum computers.” (TTG)
  • Azure Reserved Virtual Machine Instances – “Azure Reserved Virtual Machine Instances (RIs) are a type of virtual machine (VM) on the Azure public cloud that a development or IT team can reserve to use in advance.” (TTG)
  • Azure SQL Data Warehouse – “Azure SQL Data Warehouse is a managed Data Warehouse-as-a Service (DWaaS) offering provided by Microsoft Azure.” (TTG)

  • chief storyteller – “A chief storyteller is an employee of an organization tasked with wording the company’s mission, history and messages about their brand, also known as their story, as they want it to be heard internally and externally.” (TTG)

  • clean architecture – “Clean architecture is a software design philosophy that separates the elements of the design into ringed levels.” (TTG)
  • compliance as a service (CaaS) – “Compliance as a Service (CaaS) is a cloud service service level agreement (SLA) that specified how a managed service provider (MSP) will help an organization meet its regulatory compliance mandates.” (TTG)
  • data discovery platform – “A data discovery platform is a complete set of tools for the purpose of detecting patterns, and those outlier results outside of patterns, in data.” (TTG)
  • Exchange Online – “Exchange Online is the hosted version of Microsoft’s Exchange Server messaging platform that organizations can obtain as a stand-alone service or via an Office 365 (Microsoft 365) subscription.” (TTG)
  • Exchange Server 2013 Service Pack 1 (SP1) – “Exchange Server 2013 SP1 is a service pack for Exchange Server 2013 that includes a number of new and updated Exchange Server 2013 features and capabilities.” (TTG)
  • Exchange staged migration – “The staged Exchange migration process transfers data and mailboxes from one Exchange server to another, either on-premises or in the cloud.” (TTG)
  • Exchange transaction log – “In Microsoft Exchange, a transaction log is a file that contains a record of the changes that were made to an Exchange database.” (TTG)
  • Group Policy Object (GPO) – “Microsoft’s Group Policy Object (GPO) is a collection of Group Policy settings that defines what a system will look like and how it will behave for a defined group of users.” (TTG)
  • GWX (Get Windows 10) – “GWX (get Windows 10) is a Windows upgrade app that was initially installed after Windows update KB3035583; the app has been the subject of consumer complaints for manipulative design.” (TTG)
  • In-Memory OLTP – “In-Memory OLTP is a Microsoft in-memory technology built into SQL Server and optimized for transaction processing applications.” (TTG)
  • Internet Explorer (IE) – “Internet Explorer (IE) is a World Wide Web browser made by Microsoft for use on its Windows operating system.” (TTG)
  • MAPI over HTTP (Messaging Application Programming Interface over HTTP) – “MAPI over HTTP is the default transport protocol to connect clients to Microsoft Exchange and Exchange Online.” (TTG)
  • MCITP (Microsoft Certified IT Professional) – “An MCITP (Microsoft Certified IT Professional) is a credential that proves that an individual has a complete set of skills required to perform a particular IT job role, such as enterprise or virtualization administrator.” (TTG)
  • MCSA (Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate) – “MCSA (Microsoft Certified Solutions Associate) is a certification program intended for people who seek entry-level jobs in an information technology (IT) environment.” (TTG)
  • MCSE Private Cloud (Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert Private Cloud) – “Microsoft Certified Solutions Expert (MCSE) Private Cloud is a new Microsoft certification covering Windows 2012 Hyper-V and System Center 2012, as well as applications such as SharePoint and Exchange.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft – “Microsoft is a leading global vendor of computer software; hardware for computer, mobile and gaming systems; and cloud services.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Active Directory Migration Tool (ADMT) – “The Microsoft Active Directory Migration Tool (ADMT) is a tool used to move Active Directory objects from one Windows Server Active Directory domain or forest to another.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD Rights Management Services) – “Active Directory Rights Management Services (AD RMS) is a security tool that provides a safeguard to prevent unauthorized access to data.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Antigen – “Microsoft Antigen is a set of programs that provides security and e-mail filtering for network servers.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Antimalware for Azure – “Microsoft Antimalware for Azure is a security extension in Microsoft Azure that extends antimalware protection to virtual machines and to cloud services.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft App-V (Microsoft Application Virtualization) – “Microsoft App-V is a tool IT administrators can use to virtualize and stream applications to users from a centrally managed location.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft AppSource – “Microsoft AppSource is an app store for business applications such as Office 365 (Microsoft 365), Dynamics 365, Power BI or separate Azure web apps.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit – “Microsoft Assessment and Planning (MAP) Toolkit is a free utility IT can use to determine whether or not its infrastructure is prepared for a migration to a new operating system, server version or cloud-based deployment.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft AzMan (Microsoft Authorization Manager) – “Microsoft AzMan (Authorization Manager) is a role-based access and security framework.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure – “Microsoft Azure, formerly known as Windows Azure, is Microsoft’s public cloud computing platform.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Active Directory Authentication Library (ADAL) for Microsoft SQL Server – “Microsoft Azure Active Directory Authentication Library (ADAL) enables applications to authenticate to Microsoft Azure SQL Database using Azure Active Directory.” (
  • Microsoft Azure Active Directory Connect (Microsoft Azure AD Connect) – “Microsoft Azure Active Directory Connect (Microsoft Azure AD Connect) is a tool for connecting on-premises identity infrastructure to Microsoft Azure Active Directory.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Cosmos DB – “Azure Cosmos DB is a Microsoft cloud database that supports multiple ways of storing and processing data.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Data Lake – “Microsoft Azure Data Lake is a highly scalable public cloud service that allows developers, scientists, business professionals and other Microsoft customers to gain insight from large, complex data sets.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure File Service – “Microsoft Azure File Service is a service that allows Windows Server admins to access SMB shares in the Azure cloud by setting up file shares in the Azure management console.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Functions – “Azure Functions is the serverless computing service hosted on the Microsoft Azure public cloud.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Key Vault – “Microsoft Azure Key Vault is a cloud-hosted management service that allows users to encrypt keys and small secrets like passwords or answers to security questions that are used in their cloud applications and services.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Marketplace – “Microsoft Azure Marketplace is an online store that provides tools and applications that are compatible with the Azure public cloud.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Operational Insights – “Microsoft Azure Operational Insights (AOI) is a cloud-hosted Software as a Service tool that allows an IT operations staff to collect and search data from multiple machines for analysis.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Premium Storage – “Microsoft Azure Premium Storage is solid-state drive storage for Azure virtual machines for workloads that require low latency and high throughput.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure RemoteApp (Remote Application Services) – “Microsoft Azure RemoteApp (Remote Application Services) is a program that allows organizations to make remotely accessed programs or applications in Microsoft Azure, known as RemoteApp programs, appear as if they are native to end users’ local computers.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Resource Manager – “Microsoft Azure Resource Manager (ARM) is a management framework that allows administrators to deploy, manage and monitor Azure resources.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Security Center – “Microsoft Azure Security Center is a set of tools and services for securing virtual machines that run on the Azure public cloud.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Site Recovery – “Microsoft Azure Site Recovery is a new service in Microsoft Azure primarily used for disaster recovery purposes.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure Stack – “Microsoft Azure Stack is an integrated platform of hardware and software that delivers Microsoft Azure public cloud services in a local data center to let organizations construct hybrid clouds.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Azure VM Scale Sets – “A Microsoft Azure VM Scale Set is a group of individual virtual machines (VMs) within the Microsoft Azure public cloud that IT administrators can configure and manage as a single unit.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Certified Solution Developer (MCSD) – “An MCSD (Microsoft Certified Solution Developer) is someone who has passed exams that test their ability to design and develop custom business applications with Microsoft development tools, technologies, and platform.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Click-To-Run – “Microsoft Click-to-Run is a way to quickly install Microsoft products, including versions of Office 2010 and Office 2013.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Client Hyper-V – “Microsoft Client Hyper-V is a type-1 hypervisor for the Windows 8.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Cloud Hybrid Search Service Application – “Microsoft Cloud Hybrid Search Service Application is a hybrid enterprise search capability that enables organizations to search both on-premises and cloud-based data repositories without generated siloed results.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Cloud Security Readiness Tool (CSRT) – “The Microsoft Cloud Security Readiness Tool (CSRT) is a survey that assesses the systems, processes and productivity of an IT environment in preparation for the adoption and secure use of cloud computing services.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Cloud Witness – “Microsoft Cloud Witness is a high availability feature for failover clusters that uses storage in the Microsoft Azure cloud platform to ensure clusters continue to function if there is a site outage.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Cluster Operating System (OS) Rolling Upgrade – “Microsoft Cluster Operating System (OS) Rolling Upgrade is a feature that keeps Hyper-V virtual machines (VMs) or Scale-Out File Server workloads running during an upgrade from a Windows Server 2012 R2 cluster to a Windows Server 2016 cluster.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) Generic Application – “Generic Application is a Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) resource type responsible for managing cluster-unaware applications.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) Generic Script – “Generic Script is a Microsoft Cluster Server (MSCS) resource type in a server cluster or failover cluster that supports an application controlled by a script that runs in Windows Script Host (WSH).” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Cluster Service (MSCS) – “Microsoft Cluster Service (MSCS) is a service that provides high availability (HA) for applications such as databases, messaging and file and print services.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Connectivity Analyzer (MCA) – “The Microsoft Connectivity Analyzer (MCA) is a diagnostics tool for troubleshooting and testing connectivity to several Microsoft messaging products from a client machine on an organization’s network.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Cortana – “Cortana, Microsoft’s virtual assistant, debuted in Windows Phone 8.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft CPS (Microsoft Cloud Platform System) – “Microsoft CPS (Microsoft Cloud Platform System) is a software stack of Window Server 2012 R2, System Center 2012 R2, and Windows Azure Pack that runs on Dell servers.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (Microsoft DCA) – “Microsoft DirectAccess Connectivity Assistant (Microsoft DCA) is a tool administrators use to improve an enterprise’s DirectAccess connection.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Dynamic Access Control (DAC) – “Microsoft Dynamic Access Control (DAC) is a data governance tool in Windows Server 2012 that lets admins control the permission of access settings in an organization.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Dynamics 365 – “Microsoft Dynamics 365 is a cloud-based business applications platform that combines components of customer relationship management (CRM) and enterprise resource planning (ERP), along with productivity applications and artificial intelligence tools.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Dynamics AX (Microsoft Axapta) – “Microsoft Dynamics AX is a multi-language, multi-currency, industry-specific global enterprise resource planning (ERP) software product.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Edge – “Microsoft Edge is the browser for Windows 10; Edge replaces Internet Explorer, the browser that debuted with Windows 95 and was a part of Windows operating systems for the following two decades.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Edge Web Notes – “Microsoft Edge Web Notes is a feature in Microsoft’s Edge browser that lets users draw, highlight or type directly on webpages and web apps.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET) – “Microsoft’s Enhanced Mitigation Experience Toolkit (EMET) is a free Windows-based security tool that adds supplemental security defenses to defend potentially vulnerable legacy and third-party applications.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange 2010 Mailbox Server Role Requirements Calculator – “The Microsoft Exchange 2010 Mailbox Server Role Requirements Calculator is a free, downloadable tool from Microsoft that helps Exchange 2010 administrators design their mailbox server role so that it is optimized for their specific deployment.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange 2013 Managed Store – “The Microsoft Exchange 2013 Managed Store is a mechanism used in Exchange Server 2013 to isolate failures at the database level.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange 2013 Poison Message Queue – “Microsoft Exchange 2013 Poison Message Queue is a queue that exists specifically to hold messages deemed harmful to the deployment after a transport server or service failure.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange 2013 Safety Net – “The Microsoft Exchange 2013 Safety Net is a feature new in Exchange Server 2013 that helps reduce data loss through delivery of copied email messages.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange 2013 site mailbox – “A Microsoft Exchange 2013 site mailbox is an Exchange 2013 feature that helps facilitate collaboration between SharePoint 2013 users.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync – “Microsoft Exchange ActiveSync is a synchronization protocol that enables users of mobile devices to access email, calendar, contacts, and tasks from their organization’s Microsoft Exchange server.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Address Book Policy (ABP) – “A Microsoft Exchange Address Book Policy is a feature that allows administrators to segment Exchange Global Address Lists in order to give users specified views of other users’ email addresses in their Exchange organization.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Fast Access – “Microsoft Exchange Fast Access is a new feature in Microsoft Outlook 2013 that helps improve the email client’s startup synchronization time.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Global Address List (GAL) – “The Microsoft Exchange Global Address List is a list of all users and their respective email addresses within an Exchange Server organization that uses Microsoft Outlook for email.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange In-Place eDiscovery – “Microsoft Exchange In-Place eDiscovery is an administrative feature to perform legal discovery searches for relevant content in mailboxes.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Information Store – “Microsoft Exchange Information Store is a storage platform that is used to manage numerous types of information within an Exchange Server deployment.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Replication Service (MRS) – “The Microsoft Exchange Mailbox Replication Service (MRS) is a feature that handles mailbox import, export, migration and restoration requests on Exchange Server.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Management Shell (EMS) – “Microsoft Exchange Management Shell (EMS) is a scripting platform that enables administrators to manage Exchange Server.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Online Protection (EOP) – “Microsoft Exchange Online Protection (EOP) is an email cloud service that provides end users with protection against spam and malware.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange RBAC (Role Based Access Control) – “Microsoft Exchange RBAC is a permissions model used in Exchange Server 2010 and Exchange Server 2013.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Server – “Microsoft Exchange Server is Microsoft’s email, calendaring, contact, scheduling and collaboration platform.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Server 2010 – “Exchange Server 2010 is the version of Microsoft’s messaging platform that replaced Exchange Server 2007.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 – “Exchange Server 2013 is an iteration of Microsoft’s Exchange server.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 Managed Availability – “Microsoft Exchange Server 2013 Managed Availability is a built-in monitoring and recovery platform in Exchange 2013.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Server 2016 – “Microsoft Exchange Server 2016 is the latest iteration of the Exchange Server messaging platform.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Server ActiveSync Web Administration Tool – “The Microsoft Exchange Server ActiveSync Web Administration Tool is a software application that provides a network administrator with a Web interface for mobile device management.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Server Jetstress – “Microsoft Exchange Server Jetstress is a tool that administrators can use to validate their Exchange Server storage configuration.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange Server Profile Analyzer (EPA) – “The Microsoft Exchange Server Profile Analyzer (EPA) is a Web-based tool that allows an administrator to gather data about a specific Exchange mailbox store or entire Exchange Server organization.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Exchange System Attendant (SA) – “Microsoft Exchange System Attendant service is software that proxies Active Directory requests and regulates internal Exchange Server functions.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Failover Cluster Manager (MSFCM) – “Microsoft Failover Cluster Manager (MSFCM) is a specific management function within the Windows Server operating system which is used to create, validate, and manage failover server clusters running Windows Server.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft FAST Search – “Microsoft FAST Search is the search engine for Microsoft’s SharePoint collaboration platform.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft FIM (Microsoft Forefront Identity Manager) – “Microsoft Forefront Identity Manager (FIM) is a self-service identity management software suite.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Flow – “Microsoft Flow, now called Power Automate, is cloud-based software that allows employees to create and automate workflows and tasks across multiple applications and services without help from developers.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (Microsoft Forefront UAG) – “Microsoft Forefront Unified Access Gateway (Forefront UAG) is a tool that can provide a secure remote access option for remote end users who want to access corporate resources on PCs as well as on mobile devices.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Group Policy administrative template – “A Microsoft Group Policy administrative template is a file that supports the implementation of Microsoft Windows Group Policy and centralized user and machine management in Active Directory environments.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft HealthVault – “Microsoft HealthVault, which launched in October 2007, is a free personal health record (PHR) service offered by Microsoft that allows individuals to store personal health and fitness information in a central location.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft HoloLens – “Microsoft HoloLens is a virtual reality (VR) headset with transparent lenses for an augmented reality experience.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Hybrid Configuration Wizard – “The Microsoft Hybrid Configuration wizard is a tool in Exchange Server 2013 that provides a method for admins to create and configure hybrid deployments.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Hyper-V Best Practices Analyzer – “Microsoft Hyper-V Best Practices Analyzer is a server management tool that scans server configurations and generates a report that identifies best practice violations.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Hyper-V Shielded VM – “A Microsoft Hyper-V Shielded VM is a security feature of Windows Server 2016 that protects a Hyper-V second-generation virtual machine (VM) from access or tampering by using a combination of Secure Boot, BitLocker encryption, virtual Trusted Platform Module (TPM) and the Host Guardian Service.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Hyper-V version 1.0 – “Hyper-V is Microsoft’s server virtualization software for Microsoft Server 2008.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Identity Manager 2016 – “Microsoft Identity Manager 2016 is a tool that allows organizations to manage access, users, policies and credentials.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Intune – “Microsoft Intune is a cloud-based enterprise mobility management tool that aims to help organizations manage the mobile devices employees use to access corporate data and applications, such as email.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft iSCSI Initiator – “Microsoft iSCSI Initiator is a tool that connects external iSCSI-based storage to host computers with an Ethernet network adapter.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Log Parser Studio – “Microsoft Log Parser Studio is a front-end utility that features a graphical user interface, report builder and query repository for Microsoft’s Log Parser application.”
  • Microsoft Managed Desktop (MMD) – “Microsoft Managed Desktop (MMD) is a subscription-based desktop as a service (DaaS) cloud platform that includes Windows 10 Enterprise, Office 365 (Microsoft 365), Enterprise Mobility and Security on select Windows PCs and Windows 10-enabled devices.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Management Console (MMC) – “The Microsoft Management Console (MMC) is an application that provides a graphical-user interface (GUI) and a programming framework in which consoles (collections of administrative tools) can be created, saved, and opened.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Nano Server – “Microsoft Nano Server is a lightweight operating system based on Microsoft Windows Server 2016 that is tailored for use as an OS layer for virtualized container instances.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Network Access Protection (NAP) – “Network access protection (NAP), introduced with Windows Server 2008, is Microsoft’s approach to controlling access to a network based on a determination of each device’s health.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Network Device Enrollment Service (NDES) – “Microsoft Network Device Enrollment Service (NDES) is a security feature in Windows Server 2008 R2 and later Windows Server operating versions.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Network Policy and Access Services (Microsoft NPAS) – “Microsoft Network Policy and Access Services (Microsoft NPAS) is a server role in Windows 2008 and Windows Server 2012 that allows administrators to provide local and remote network access.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Office 2013 (MS Office 2013) – Microsoft Office 2013 is a suite of office productivity applications used in homes and businesses of all sizes.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Office 365 Admin Center – “The Microsoft Office 365 Admin Center is the web-based portal administrators use to manage user accounts and configuration settings for the Office 365 subscription services, including Exchange Online and SharePoint Online.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Office 365 admin roles – “Microsoft Office 365 admin roles give users authorization to perform certain tasks in the Office 365 admin center.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Office 365 Advanced Threat Protection – “Microsoft Office 365 Advanced Threat Protection (ATP) is Microsoft’s optional cloud-based service that scans and filters email to protect subscribers from malware in attachments and hyperlinks to malicious websites.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Office 365 Groups – “Microsoft Office 365 Groups is a cloud collaboration feature for communication, coordinating group efforts and exchanging information.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Office 365 suite – “Microsoft Office 365 suite (now called Microsoft 365) is a hosted, online version of Microsoft Office software.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Office Delve – “Microsoft Delve is a discovery and collaboration tool within Office 365 (Microsoft 365) that uses machine learning to help users work more efficiently.” (TTG)
  • Microsoft Office for iPad – “Microsoft Office for iPad is an app that allows users to use Microsoft Office on an Apple iPad.” (TTG)

” (B087XCZ77Y, WS19IO)

” (WS19IO)


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Windows Server 2019 Inside Out

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Windows Server 2019 Inside Out by Orin Thomas, 2020

Published with the authorization of Microsoft Corporation by: Pearson Education, Inc.

Product details

  • ASIN: B087XCZ77Y
  • ISBN-13: 978-0-13-549227-7
  • ISBN-10: 0-13-549227-0
  • Publisher: Microsoft Press; 1st edition (May 7, 2020)
  • Publication date: May 7, 2020
  • Print length: 800 pages

Contents at a glance

  • Chapter 1 – Administration tools
  • Chapter 2 – Installation options
  • Chapter 3 – Deployment and configuration
  • Chapter 4 – Active Directory
  • Chapter 5 – DNS, DHCP, and IPAM
  • Chapter 6 – Hyper-V
  • Chapter 7 – Storage
  • Chapter 8 – File servers
  • Chapter 9 – Internet Information Services (IIS)
  • Chapter 10 – Windows Containers
  • Chapter 11 – Clustering and high availability
  • Chapter 12 – Active Directory Certificate Services (ADCS)
  • Chapter 13 – Active Directory Federation Services (ADFS)
  • Chapter 14 – Dynamic Access Control (DAC) and Active Directory Rights Management Services (ADRMS)
  • Chapter 15 – Routing and Remote Access (RRA)
  • Chapter 16 – Remote Desktop Services (RDS)
  • Chapter 17 – Azure IaaS and hybrid services
  • Chapter 18 – Windows Subsystem for Linux (WSL)
  • Chapter 19 – Hardening Windows Server and Active Directory Security
  • Chapter 20 – Security systems and services
  • Chapter 21 – Maintenance and monitoring
  • Chapter 22 – Upgrade and migration
  • Chapter 23 – Troubleshooting
  • Index

Fair Use Source: B087XCZ77Y, WS19IO

Detailed Table of Contents:

  • Introduction
  • Changes since Windows Server 2016 Inside Out
  • Acknowledgments
  • Errata, updates, and book support

  • Chapter 1 Administration tools
  • Remote not local
  • Privileged Access Workstations
  • Windows Admin Center (WAC)
  • Installing Windows Admin Center
  • Windows Admin Center extensions
  • Show script
  • Remote Server Administration Tools (RSAT)
  • RSAT consoles
  • Server Manager console
  • PowerShell
  • PowerShell Modules
  • PowerShell Gallery
  • PowerShell Remoting
  • One-to-many remoting
  • PowerShell ISE
  • PowerShell Direct
  • Remote Desktop
  • SSH

  • Chapter 2 Installation options

Windows Server 2019 editions

Windows Server servicing branches

Long Term Servicing Channel

Semi Annual Channel

Insider Preview Builds

Server Core

Server Core interface

Server Core roles

Server Core App Compatibility Features on Demand

When to deploy Server Core

Server with Desktop Experience

Roles and features

Chapter 3 Deployment and configuration

Bare metal versus virtualized

Windows images

Modifying Windows images

Servicing Windows images

Mounting images

Adding drivers and updates to images

Adding roles and features

Committing an image

Build and capture

Answer files

Windows Deployment Services

WDS requirements

Managing images

Configuring WDS

Configuring transmissions

Driver groups and packages

Virtual Machine Manager

Virtual machine templates

VMM storage

VMM networking

Adding a WDS to VMM

VMM host groups

Infrastructure configuration as code

Desired State Configuration

DSC configuration files

Local Configuration Manager

DSC resources

DSC push model

DSC pull server

Chef Infra Server

Chef servers

Chef Development Kit

Deploying Chef agents

Deploying Chef cookbooks and recipes


Puppet Master Server

Deploying Puppet agent to Windows Server

Managing Windows Server configuration

Puppet Windows Module Pack

Package-management utilities

PowerShell Gallery


Chapter 4 Active Directory

Managing Active Directory

Remote rather than local administration

Active Directory Administrative Center

Active Directory Users and Computers console

Active Directory Sites and Services console

Active Directory Domains and Trusts console

Domain controllers


Server Core

Global catalog servers

Read only domain controllers

Virtual domain controller cloning

AD DS structure


Domain functional levels


Account and resource forests

Organizational units

Flexible Single Master Operations roles


User accounts

Computer accounts

Group accounts

Default groups

Service accounts

Group policy

GPO management

Policy processing

Group Policy preferences

Administrative templates

Restoring deleted items

Active Directory Recycle Bin

Authoritative restore

Active Directory snapshots

Managing AD DS with PowerShell

Active Directory module

Group Policy module

ADDSDeployment module

Chapter 5 DNS, DHCP, and IPAM


DNS zone types

Zone delegation

Forwarders and conditional forwarders

Stub zones

GlobalNames zones

Peer Name Resolution Protocol

Resource records

Zone aging and scavenging


DNS event logs

DNS options

Delegated administration

Managing DNS with PowerShell



Server and scope options


DHCP filtering


Multicast scopes

Split scopes

Name protection

DHCP failover



Deploy IPAM

Configure server discovery

IPAM Administration

Managing IPAM with PowerShell

Chapter 6 Hyper-V

Dynamic memory

Smart paging

Resource metering

Guest integration services

Generation 2 VMs

Enhanced Session Mode

Discrete Device Assignment

Nested virtualization

Nested virtualization dynamic memory

Nested virtualization networking

PowerShell Direct

HVC for Linux

Virtual hard disks

Fixed-sized disks

Dynamically expanding disks

Differencing disks

Modifying virtual hard disks

Pass-through disks

Managing checkpoints

Virtual Fibre Channel adapters

Storage QoS

Hyper-V storage optimization


Storage tiering

Hyper-V virtual switches

External switches

Internal switches

Private switches

Virtual machine network adapters

Optimizing network performance

Bandwidth management


Dynamic virtual machine queue

Virtual machine NIC teaming

Virtual machine MAC addresses

Network isolation

Hyper-V replica

Configuring Hyper-V replica servers

Configuring VM replicas

Replica failover

Hyper-V replica broker

Hyper-V failover clusters

Hyper-V host cluster storage

Cluster quorum

Cluster networking

Force Quorum Resiliency

Cluster Shared Volumes

Active Directory detached clusters

Preferred owner and failover settings

Hyper-V guest clusters

Hyper-V guest cluster storage

Shared virtual hard disk

Hyper-V VHD Sets

Live migration

Storage migration

Exporting, importing, and copying VMs

VM Network Health Detection

VM drain on shutdown

Domain controller cloning

Shielded virtual machines

Managing Hyper-V using PowerShell

Chapter 7 Storage

Storage spaces and storage pools

Storage pools

Storage space resiliency

Storage space tiering

Thin provisioning and trim

Creating virtual disks

Storage Spaces Direct

Storage Replica

Supported configurations

Configuring replication

SMB 3.1.1


iSNS server

Scale-Out File Servers

Server for NFS


Storage Quality of Service


Storage-related PowerShell cmdlets






Storage Replica

Chapter 8 File servers

Shared folder permissions

Using File Explorer

Windows Admin Center

Server Manager

File Server Resource Manager

Folder level quotas

File screens

Storage reports

File classification

File management tasks

Access-Denied Assistance

Distributed File System

DFS namespace

DFS replication


PowerShell commands

Shared Folder cmdlets

File Server Resource Manager cmdlets

BranchCache Cmdlets

DFS Cmdlets

Chapter 9 Internet Information Services

Managing sites

Adding websites

Virtual directories

Modifying site settings

Adding web applications

Configuring TLS certificates

Site authentication

Modifying custom error response

Adding or disabling the default document

Directory browsing

IP address and domain name filtering

URL authorization rules

Request filters

Application pools

Creating application pools

Configuring application pool recycling settings

IIS users and delegation

IIS user accounts

Delegating administrative permissions

Managing FTP

Managing IIS using PowerShell

Chapter 10 Containers

Container concepts

Isolation modes

Process Isolation mode

Hyper-V Isolation mode

Managing containers with Docker

Installing Docker


Retrieving container OS image

Container registries and images

Managing containers

Starting a container

Modifying a running container

Creating a new image from a container

Using Dockerfiles

Managing container images

Service accounts for Windows containers

Applying updates

Container networking




Layer 2 Bridge

Linux containers on Windows

Container orchestration


Docker Swarm

Chapter 11 Clustering and high availability

Failover clustering

Cluster quorum modes

Cluster storage and cluster shared volumes

Cluster networks


Cluster Aware Updating

Failover and preference settings

Multisite clusters

Cloud witness

Virtual machine failover clustering

Rolling upgrades

Workgroup clusters

Cluster sets

Managing failover clustering with PowerShell

Network Load Balancing

Network Load Balancing prerequisites

NLB cluster operation modes

Managing cluster hosts

Port rules

Filtering and affinity

Managing NLB with PowerShell

Chapter 12 Active Directory Certificate Services

CA types

Enterprise CA

Standalone CAs

Certificate revocation lists

CRL distribution points

Authority Information Access

Revoking a certificate

Publishing CRLs and delta CRLs

Certificate Services role services

Certificate templates

Template properties

Adding and editing templates

Certificate autoenrollment and renewal

CA management

Handling certificate requests

CA backup and recovery

Key archiving and recovery


Managing Certificate Services using PowerShell

Managing Certificate Services using Certutil.exe and Certreq.exe

Chapter 13 Active Directory Federation Services

AD FS components

Claims, claim rules, and attribute stores

Claims provider

Relying party

Relying party trust

Claims provider trust

Configuring certificate relationship

Attribute stores

Claim rules

Relying party trust claim rules

Claims provider trust claim rules

Configure Web Application Proxy

Workplace Join

Multifactor authentication

Managing AD FS with PowerShell

Managing Web Application Proxy with PowerShell

Chapter 14 Dynamic Access Control and Active Directory Rights Management Services

Dynamic Access Control

Configuring Group Policy to support DAC

Configuring User and Device Claims

Configuring Resource Properties

Central access rules

Central access policies


Access Denied Assistance

Installing AD RMS

AD RMS certificates and licenses

AD RMS Templates

AD RMS Administrators and Super Users

Trusted User and Publishing Domains

Exclusion policies

Apply AD RMS templates automatically

Managing AD RMS with Windows PowerShell

Dynamic Access Control cmdlets

Chapter 15 Routing and Remote Access

Remote Desktop Gateway

RD Gateway connection and resource policies

Configuring server settings

Configuring clients to use RD Gateway

Virtual private networks

IKEv2 Always On VPN protocol

SSTP VPN protocol

L2TP/IPsec protocols

PPTP VPN protocol

VPN authentication

Deploying a VPN server

Disable VPN protocols

Granting access to a VPN server

LAN routing

Network Address Translation (NAT)


DirectAccess topologies

DirectAccess server

Network Location Server

Configuring DirectAccess

Managing Remote Access using PowerShell

Chapter 16 Remote Desktop Services


Remote Desktop Connection Broker

Deployment properties

Remote Desktop Session Host

Session collection settings

Personal session desktops


Group Policy configuration

Remote Desktop Virtualization Host

Virtual machine preparation

Virtual desktop collections

Pooled virtual desktops

Personal virtual desktops

DDA and RemoteFX

Remote Desktop Web Access

Remote Desktop licensing

Installing RDS CALs

Activating a License Server

Managing Remote Desktop Services using PowerShell

Chapter 17 Azure IaaS and hybrid services

Windows Server IaaS VMs

Creating Azure IaaS VMs

IaaS VM networking

IaaS VM administration

Azure Active Directory

Azure Active Directory Connect

Azure AD Connect server requirements

Installing Azure AD Connect

Using UPN suffixes and non-routable domains

Monitor Azure AD Connect Health

Forcing synchronization

Configure object filters

Implement and manage Azure AD self-service password reset

Azure AD Password Protection

Azure AD DS

Azure hybrid cloud services

Connect Windows Admin Center

Creating Azure IaaS VMs from Windows Admin Center

Azure File Sync

Azure Arc

Azure Site Recovery

Azure Network Adapter

Chapter 18 Windows Subsystem for Linux

Linux on Windows Server

Installing WSL

WSL 2.0

Chapter 19 Hardening Windows Server and Active Directory

Hardening Active Directory

Hardening domain controllers

Least privilege

Role-Based Access Control

Password policies

Account security options

Protected accounts

Authentication policies silos

Disable NTLM

Block server operators from scheduling tasks

Enable Local Security Authority protection

KRBTGT account password

Enhanced Security Administrative Environment forest

Hardening Windows Server

User rights

Service accounts

Just Enough Administration

Privileged Access Management

Local Administrator Password Solution

Advanced auditing

Windows Firewall with Advanced Security

Shielded VMs

Guarded fabric

Chapter 20 Security systems and services

Security Compliance Toolkit

Policy Analyzer tool

Local Group Policy Object tool

Attack Surface Analyzer

Credential Guard

Windows Defender Application Control

Virtualization-based security

Controlled Folder Access

Exploit Protection

Windows Defender

Windows Defender SmartScreen

Chapter 21 Maintenance and monitoring

Data collector sets


Event Viewer

Event log filters

Event log views

Event subscriptions

Event-driven tasks

Network monitoring

Resource Monitor

Message Analyzer

Azure Monitor

Windows Server Backup

Backup locations

Backing up data

Role- and application-specific backups

Restore from backups

Restore to an alternative location

Azure Backup

Preparing Azure Backup

Backing up data to Azure Backup Agent

Restore from Azure Backup


Windows Server Update Services

Products, security classifications, and languages

Autonomous and replica modes

Update files

WSUS security roles

WSUS groups

WSUS policies

Deploying updates

Automatic approval rules

Azure Update Management

Monitoring and maintenance related PowerShell cmdlets

WSUS related PowerShell cmdlets

Chapter 22 Upgrade and migration

Supported upgrade and migration paths

Upgrading roles and features

Converting evaluation version to licensed version

Upgrading editions

Windows Server Migration Tools

Active Directory

FRS to DFSR migration

Migrating to a new forest

Active Directory Certificate Services



Verification and post migration tasks



Preparing to migrate DHCP


Verification and post migration tasks

File and storage servers

Migrate file servers using Storage Migration Service

Migrate file and storage servers using WSMT

Chapter 23 Troubleshooting

Troubleshooting methodology


Symptoms and diagnosis


Ranking hypothetical solutions

Applying solutions

Command-line tools

Sysinternals tools

Process Explorer

Process Monitor










Active Directory Explorer

Insight for Active Directory





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IaC Infrastructure as Code

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Infrastructure as code (IaC) is the process of managing and provisioning computer data centers through machine-readable definition files, rather than physical hardware configuration or interactive configuration tools.[1] The IT infrastructure managed by this process comprises both physical equipment, such as bare-metal servers, as well as virtual machines, and associated configuration resources. The definitions may be in a version control system. It can use either scripts or declarative definitions, rather than manual processes, but the term is more often used to promote declarative approaches.

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SCM Software Configuration Management

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In software engineeringsoftware configuration management (SCM or S/W CM) is the task of tracking and controlling changes in the software, part of the larger cross-disciplinary field of configuration management.[1] SCM practices include revision control and the establishment of baselines. If something goes wrong, SCM can determine what was changed and who changed it. If a configuration is working well, SCM can determine how to replicate it across many hosts.

The acronym “SCM” is also expanded as source configuration management process and software change and configuration management.[2] However, “configuration” is generally understood to cover changes typically made by a system administrator.


The goals of SCM are generally:[citation needed]

  • Configuration identification – Identifying configurations, configuration items and baselines.
  • Configuration control – Implementing a controlled change process. This is usually achieved by setting up a change control board whose primary function is to approve or reject all change requests that are sent against any baseline.
  • Configuration status accounting – Recording and reporting all the necessary information on the status of the development process.
  • Configuration auditing – Ensuring that configurations contain all their intended parts and are sound with respect to their specifying documents, including requirements, architectural specifications and user manuals.
  • Build management – Managing the process and tools used for builds.
  • Process management – Ensuring adherence to the organization’s development process.
  • Environment management – Managing the software and hardware that host the system.
  • Teamwork – Facilitate team interactions related to the process.
  • Defect tracking – Making sure every defect has traceability back to the source.

With the introduction of cloud computing the purposes of SCM tools have become merged in some cases. The SCM tools themselves have become virtual appliances that can be instantiated as virtual machines and saved with state and version. The tools can model and manage cloud-based virtual resources, including virtual appliances, storage units, and software bundles. The roles and responsibilities of the actors have become merged as well with developers now being able to dynamically instantiate virtual servers and related resources.[3]

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See access control list (ACL) and access control