Categories
Bibliography DevOps History Software Engineering

B00B8USS14 ISBN-13: 978-0201835953

See: Mythical Man-Month, Anniversary Edition, The: Essays On Software Engineering 2nd Edition

Fair Use Source:

Categories
Artificial Intelligence Cloud Data Science - Big Data History

Limited hangout

“A limited hangout or partial hangout is, according to former special assistant to the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency Victor Marchetti, “spy jargon for a favorite and frequently used gimmick of the clandestine professionals. When their veil of secrecy is shredded and they can no longer rely on a phony cover story to misinform the public, they resort to admitting—sometimes even volunteering—some of the truth while still managing to withhold the key and damaging facts in the case. The public, however, is usually so intrigued by the new information that it never thinks to pursue the matter further.”[1][2] (WP)

Modified limited hangout

“In a March 22, 1973, meeting between president Richard NixonJohn DeanJohn EhrlichmanJohn Mitchell, and H. R. Haldeman, Ehrlichman incorporated the term into a new and related one, “modified limited hangout“.[3][4]

The phrase was coined in the following exchange:[5]” (WP)

PRESIDENT: You think, you think we want to, want to go this route now? And the — let it hang out, so to speak?

DEAN: Well, it’s, it isn’t really that —
HALDEMAN: It’s a limited hang out.
DEAN: It’s a limited hang out.
EHRLICHMAN: It’s a modified limited hang out.

PRESIDENT: Well, it’s only the questions of the thing hanging out publicly or privately.

“Before this exchange, the discussion captures Nixon outlining to Dean the content of a report that Dean would create, laying out a misleading view of the role of the White House staff in events surrounding the Watergate burglary. In Ehrlichman’s words: “And the report says, ‘Nobody was involved,'”. The document would then be shared with the United States Senate Watergate Committee investigating the affair. The report would serve the administration’s goals by protecting the President, providing documentary support for his false statements should information come to light that contradicted his stated position. Further, the group discusses having information on the report leaked by those on the Committee sympathetic to the President, to put exculpatory information into the public sphere.[5]” (WP)

“The phrase has been cited as a summation of the strategy of mixing partial admissions with misinformation and resistance to further investigation, and is used in political commentary to accuse people or groups of following a Nixon-like strategy.[6]” (WP) However, this “strategy” has been used since time immemorial.

“Writing in The Washington PostMary McGrory described a statement by Pope John Paul II regarding sexual abuse by priests as a “modified, limited hangout”.[7] (WP)

See also

References

  1. ^ Victor Marchetti (August 14, 1978) The Spotlight
  2. ^ “720 F2d 631 Hunt v. Liberty Lobby Dc”. OpenJurist. 1983-11-28. Retrieved 2016-07-13.
  3. ^ Frost/Nixon: The Complete Interviews. David Frost, Richard Nixon. Paradine Television, 1977.
  4. ^ Safire, William (26 March 1989). “On Language; In Nine Little Words”New York Times. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
  5. a b “Transcript of a recording of a meeting among the president, John Dean, John Erlichman, H. R. Haldeman, and John Mitchell on March 22, 1973 from 1:57 to 3:43 p.m.” History and Politics Out Loud. Retrieved 2006-08-27.
  6. ^ Carrol, Jon (2002-05-01). “The Richard Nixon playbook”San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2006-08-27.
  7. ^ McGrory, Mary (2002-04-25). “From Rome, A ‘Limited Hangout'”The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. p. A29. Retrieved 2010-04-30.

Categories

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
Data Science - Big Data History

Fair Credit Reporting Act – 1970 AD

Return to Timeline of the History of Computers

1970

Fair Credit Reporting Act

Alan Westin (1929–2013)

“In March 1970, a (“limited hangout“) professor from Columbia University testified before the US Congress about shadowy American businesses that were maintaining secret databases on American citizens. These files, said Alan Westin, “may include ‘facts, statistics, inaccuracies and rumors’ . . . about virtually every phase of a person’s life: his marital troubles, jobs, school history, childhood, sex life, and political activities.”

The files were used by American banks, department stores, and other firms to determine who should be given credit to buy a house, a car, or even a furniture set. The databanks, Westin explained, were also used by companies evaluating job applicants and underwriting insurance. And they couldn’t be outlawed: without credit and the ability to pay for major purchases with installments, many people couldn’t otherwise afford such things.

Westin was well known to the US Congress: he had testified on multiple occasions before congressional committees investigating the credit-reporting industry, and he had published a book, Privacy and Freedom (1967), in which he argued that freedom in the information age required that individuals have control over how their data are used by governments and businesses. Westin defined privacy as “the claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about them is communicated to others.” And he coined the phrase data shadow to describe the trail of information that people leave behind in the modern world.

On October 26, 1970, Congress enacted the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), which gave Americans, for the first time, the right to see the consumer files that businesses used to decide who should get credit and insurance. The FCRA also gave consumers the right to force the credit bureaus to investigate a claim that the consumer felt was inaccurate, and the ability to insert a statement in the file, telling his or her side of the story.

The FCRA was one of the first laws in the world regulating what private businesses could do with data that they collect—the beginning of what is now called data protection, an idea that eventually spread worldwide.

Today there are privacy commissioners in almost every developed country. The passage of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) marked the most far-reaching privacy law on the planet.”

SEE ALSO Relational Database (1970)

Columbia professor Alan Westin was concerned about American businesses keeping secret databases on American citizens.

Fair Use Source: B07C2NQSPV

Categories
Cloud History Software Engineering

The Byte – 1956 AD

Return to Timeline of the History of Computers

1956

The Byte

Werner Buchholz (b. 1922), Louis G. Dooley (dates unavailable)

“Designers of the early binary computers faced a fundamental question: how should the computers’ storage be organized? The computers stored information in bits, but computer users didn’t want to write programs that manipulated bits; they wanted to solve math problems, crack codes, and generally work with larger units of information. The memory of decimal computers such as ENIAC and the UNIVAC I was organized in groups of 10 alphanumeric digits, called words. The binary computers also organized their memory into words, but these groups of bits were called bytes.”

byte
Unit systemunits derived from bit
Unit ofdigital information, data size
SymbolB or (when referring to exactly 8 bits) o

“It appears that the word byte was coined simultaneously in 1956 by Werner Buchholz at IBM, working on the IBM STRETCH (the world’s first supercomputer), and by Louis G. Dooley and others at MIT Lincoln Lab working on the SAGE air-defense system. In both cases, they used the word byte to describe the inputs and outputs of machine instructions that could operate on less than a full word. The STRETCH had 60-bit words and used 8-bit bytes to represent characters for its input/output system; the SAGE had instructions that could operate on 4-bit bytes.”

“The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer[1][2] and for this reason it is the smallest addressable unit of memory in many computer architectures. To disambiguate arbitrarily sized bytes from the common 8-bit definition, network protocol documents such as The Internet Protocol (RFC 791)(1981) refer to an 8-bit byte as an octet.[3]

“Over the next 20 years, the definition of a byte was somewhat fluid. IBM used 8-bit bytes with its System/360 architecture, and 8-bit groups were the standard for AT&T’s long-distance digital telephone lines. DEC, on the other hand, successfully marketed a series of computers with 18-bit and 36-bit words, including the PDP-7 and the PDP-10, which both utilized 9-bit bytes.”

“This lack of consistency resulted in the early Internet standards avoiding the word byte entirely. Instead, the word octet is used to describe a group of 8 bits sent over a computer network, a usage that survives to this day in Internet standards.”

“Nevertheless, by the 1980s, the acceptance of 8-bit bytes was almost universal—largely a result of the microcomputer revolution, because micros used 8-bit bytes almost exclusively. In part, that’s because 8 bits is an even power of 2, which makes it somewhat easier to design computer hardware with 8-bit bytes than with 9-bit bytes.”

“Today the era of 9-bit bytes is all but forgotten. And what about collections of 4 bits? Today these are called a nibble (sometimes spelled nybble).”

Multiples of bytes:

1000kBkilobyte
10002MBmegabyte
10003GBgigabyte
10004TBterabyte
10005PBpetabyte
10006EBexabyte
10007ZBzettabyte
10008YByottabyte
Multiples of bytes

1000103kkilo
10002106Mmega
10003109Ggiga
100041012Ttera
100051015Ppeta
100061018Eexa
100071021Zzetta
100081024Yyotta
Prefixes for multiples of bits (bit) or bytes (B)

SEE ALSO:

“Today’s computers most frequently use bytes consisting of 8 bits, represented by 1s and 0s.”

Fair Use Source: B07C2NQSPV

Categories
Cloud History

2020s

See also: Timeline of the History of Computing, This Year in History and History

2020

2021

Deaths

2020

2021

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
Cloud History

2010s

See also: Timeline of the History of Computing, This Year in History and History

2010

2011

2012

  • February 29
    • Raspberry Pi, a bare-bones, low-cost credit-card sized computer created by volunteers mostly drawn from academia and the UK tech industry, is released to help teach children to code.[8][9]
  • September ?? (Date unknown)
  • October 4
    • TDK demonstrates a 2 terabyte hard drive on a single 3.5-inch platter.[11]
  • October 26
  • November 18

2013

2014

2015

  • July 29
  • October 15
    • AlphaGo was the first Go AI computer program developed by Google to defeat a professional human opponent on a full-sized board without handicap.

2016

2017

2019

References

  1. ^ “Official: iPad Launching Here April 3, Pre-Orders March 12”GizmodoArchived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  2. ^ “iPad Available in US on April 3”. Apple.com. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  3. ^ “iPhone 4 Release Date: New iPhone Release Set For Summer 2010”HuffPost. 7 June 2010. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  4. ^ “Apple Presents iPhone 4”. Apple.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
  5. ^ Shimpi, Anand Lal (2011-05-04). “Intel Announces first 22nm 3D Tri-Gate Transistors, Shipping in 2H 2011”. AnandTech. Archived from the original on 2013-12-25. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
  6. ^ “Official Google Blog: A new kind of computer: Chromebook”Official Google BlogArchived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  7. ^ Shimpi, Anand Lal (2011-09-07). “Seagate Ships World’s First 4TB External HDD”. AnandTech. Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  8. ^ “BBC News – The Raspberry Pi computer goes on general sale”BBC NewsArchived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  9. ^ “Raspberry Pi $35 miniature computer now on sale, $25 model going into production ‘immediately'”The Verge. 29 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  10. ^ Shimpi, Anand Lal (2012-09-11). “Intel’s Next Unit of Computing: 4″x4″, Core i3, Systems Targeted at $399”. AnandTech. Archived from the original on 2014-01-22. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  11. ^ Parrish, Kevin (2012-10-04). “TDK Finally Crams 2TB on One 3.5-inch HDD Platter”. Tom’s Hardware. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
  12. ^ “Windows 8’s delivery date: October 26”ZDNet. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  13. ^ “Nintendo Wii U release date is November 18th in US starting at $299.99, November 30th in Europe”PolygonArchived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  14. ^ “The iPhone 5s: fingerprint sensor and improved camera, starts at $199 and coming September 20th”Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
  15. ^ “PlayStation 4 Release Date Confirmed for November 15th in North America, November 29th in Europe”. Archive.is. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  16. ^ “Xbox One to Launch on November 22, 2013 in 13 Markets – Xbox Live’s Major Nelson”Xbox Live’s Major NelsonArchived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  17. ^ “PlayStation 4 Release Date Confirmed for November 15th in North America, November 29th in Europe”. Archive.is. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  18. ^ “Seagate’s 8TB drive is biggest ever, stores more than 300 Blu-ray discs”TechRadar. 26 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  19. ^ “Seagate ships first 8TB hard drive”. Techreport.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  20. ^ “Seagate Ships World’s First 8TB Hard Drives”. Seagate.com. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  21. ^ “Chromium Blog: 64 bits of awesome: 64-bit Windows Support, now in Stable!”Chromium BlogArchived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  22. ^ IntelPR. “Intel Unleashes its First 8-Core Desktop Processor”Intel NewsroomArchived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  23. ^ “Happy Haswell-E And X99 Chipset Day, Internet! How About A System Giveaway?”Tom’s HardwareArchived from the original on 30 March 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
  24. ^ “The world’s first 13TB SSD is here”Archived from the original on 28 February 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  25. ^ “The world’s first 13TB SSD is here”Archived from the original on 16 December 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
  26. ^ “MIT’s new 5-atom quantum computer could make today’s encryption obsolete”Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
Cloud History

2000s

See also: Timeline of the History of Computing, This Year in History and History

2000

DateEvent
?The Ericsson R380, the first phone running Symbian OS was released.
January 14The US Government announces that restrictions on exporting cryptography are being relaxed (although not removed).
This allows many US companies to stop the long running process of having to create US and international copies of their software.
January 19Transmeta releases the Crusoe microprocessor.
The Crusoe was intended for laptops and consumed significantly less electricity than most microprocessors of the time, while providing comparable performance to the mid-range Pentium II microprocessors.
Transmeta and Crusoe, new competitors to Intel and their products, initially appeared exciting and promising.
February 17Microsoft releases Windows 2000.
MarchBe Inc. released BeOS R5 for PowerPC and x86, which was the first release of BeOS for x86 to have a freely downloadable version which could be fully installed on a user’s hard drive.
March 4Sony releases the PlayStation 2.
March 6AMD released an Athlon clocked at 1 GHz.
March 8Intel releases very limited supplies of the 1 GHz Pentium III chip.
June 20British Telecom (BT) claim the rights to hyperlinks on the basis of a US patent granted in 1989. Similar patents in the rest of the world have now expired.
September 6RSA Security released their RSA algorithm into the public domain, in advance of the US patent (#4,405,829) expiring on September 20 of the same year.
Following the relaxation of the US government restrictions earlier in the year (January 14) this removed one of the last barriers to the worldwide distribution of much software based on cryptographic systems.
The IDEA algorithm is still under patent and also that government restrictions still apply in some places.
September 14Microsoft releases Windows ME.
November 20Intel releases the Pentium 4. The processor is built using the NetBurst microarchitecture, a new design since the introduction of the P6 microarchitecture used in the Pentium Pro in late 1995

2001

DateEvent
January 4Linux kernel version 2.4.0 released.
February 1Foundation of the newco Loquendo as a spin-off of the CSELT‘s voice technology group.
FebruaryThe Agile Manifesto, which crystallised and named a growing trend towards more “agile” processes in software development, was released. The perceived success of agile project management led to agile approaches such as Scrum later being used as a general project management approach in other fields, not just in software development or even in computing.
March 24Apple released macOS (as Mac OS X). This was a new operating system derived from NeXTSTEP, using Darwin as its kernel, an Open Source operating system based on BSD. This replaced the “classic” Mac OS for its Mac computers.
Mac OS X finally gave Mac users the stability benefits of a protected memory architecture along many other enhancements, such as pre-emptive multitasking.
The BSD base also makes porting Unix applications to Mac OS X easier and gives Mac users a full-featured command line interface alongside their GUI.
September 14Nintendo releases their sixth generation home console, the GameCube.
October 25Microsoft released Windows XP, based on Windows 2000 and Windows NT kernel. Windows XP introduces a heavily redesigned GUI and brings the NT kernel to the consumer market.
November 15Microsoft releases the Xbox in North America.

2002

DateEvent
March 4RIM (now BlackBerry Ltd) released the first BlackBerry smartphone.
May 30United Linux officially formed.
September 7Blender, a 3D graphics software package, becomes open-source software after a crowdfunding campaign successfully raises €100,000.

2003

DateEvent
FebruaryNvidia releases GeForce FX, a family of DirectX 9.0-compatible 3D cards with extensive support for pixel and vertex shaders.
With this new product Nvidia makes an emphasis on image quality, proclaiming a “dawn of cinematic computing”, illustrated with the popular Dawn demo utilising extremely realistic skin and wing shaders.
March 6SCO Group announces it would sue IBM for US$1 billion. The claim is that Linux contains code inserted by IBM that was the copyrighted property of SCO (see SCO v. IBM).
March 12Intel releases the Pentium M for notebooks and the Centrino mobile platform. The Pentium M delivers similar or higher performance than the Pentium 4-M while consuming less power.
April 22AMD releases the Opteron line of server processors. The Opteron is the successor of the Athlon MP, and introduces the 64-bit K8 microarchitecture.
September 23AMD releases the Athlon 64. The Athlon 64 is built on the K8 microarchitecture and is the first 64-bit processor widely available to the consumer market.
December 17Linux kernel version 2.6.0 is released.

2004

DateEvent
?Sony released Librié EBR-1000EP in Japan, the first e-book reader with an electronic paper display.
April 1Google announces Gmail.
April 14Nvidia releases GeForce 6800, claiming it is the biggest leap in graphics technology the company ever made. Independent reviews show more than 100% increase in productivity compared with the fastest card on the market.
Continuing the tradition, the company demonstrated Nalu, a mermaid with extremely realistic hair. A few weeks later, rival ATI announces the X800 series with nearly the same level of performance and feature support.
The card is showcased by the Ruby demo, delivering a smooth real-time rendering of what was previously in the exclusive realm of prerendered cinematics.[1]
October 20The first release of the Ubuntu Linux distribution.
October 20Infineon Technologies pleads guilty to charges of DRAM price fixing, resulting in a $160 million fine. Hynix SemiconductorSamsung and Elpida would later plead guilty to the same.
November 9Firefox 1.0 released, which later became Microsoft Internet Explorer‘s biggest competitor since Netscape Navigator.

2005

DateEvent
February 26Jef Raskin, who in 1979 envisioned and established the Macintosh project at Apple Computer, dies at the age of 61.
April 29Apple Computer releases Mac OS X Tiger (v10.4) for PowerPC-based Macs.
May 25Nokia announces the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet, the first device running Maemo.
May 26Intel releases the Pentium D, their first dual-core 64-bit desktop processor.
May 31AMD releases the Athlon 64 X2, their first dual-core 64-bit desktop processor.
June 6Apple announces they are going to use Intel processors in upcoming Macintosh computers.[2]
July 22Microsoft announces their next consumer operating system, Windows Vista (previously “Longhorn”), to be released in early 2007.
November 22Microsoft releases the Xbox 360.[3]

2006

DateEvent
January 5Intel releases the Core brand. These are mobile 32-bit single-core and dual-core processors that were built using a modified design of the Pentium M‘s microarchitecture.
January 10Apple Computer introduces the MacBook Pro, their first Intel-based, dual-core mobile computer, as well as an Intel-based iMac.
June 19Researchers create experimental processor that delivers 350 GHz, when cryogenically frozen.[4][5]
July 27Intel releases the Core 2 processor.
September 26Intel announces plans for an 80-core processor that would exceed 1 TFLOP, planned to be available in 2011.[6]
November 11Sony releases the PlayStation 3.
November 19Nintendo releases the Wii.
December 24AmigaOS 4 was released by Hyperion Entertainment (VOF) under license from Amiga, Inc. for AmigaOne registered users.

2007

DateEvent
January 7The first iPhone was introduced by Apple.
January 30Microsoft Corporation launches Windows Vista more than 5 years after their last major, new operating systemWindows XP, was released.
June 5Asus announces the first Asus Eee PC, launching the netbook category of mobile computers.[7] It initially ran Linux; later models also offered a choice of Windows.
October 26Apple launches Mac OS X Leopard (v10.5)
November 19AMD releases the Phenom line of high performance processors, positioning the Athlon as a mid-range line.

2008

DateEvent
September 2The first public beta version of the Google Chrome web browser was released. Chrome subsequently became the most popular web browser in the world, overtaking Internet Explorer.
September 23The first version of Android was introduced by Google.[8]
October 22The HTC Dream (T-Mobile G1), the first commercially available device to run the Android operating system, was released.

2009

DateEvent
January 3The online currency Bitcoin is released.[9]
August 28Apple launches Mac OS X Snow Leopard (v10.6)
October 22Microsoft releases Windows 7.

See also

References

  1. ^ Newsroom, NVIDIA. “Home”NVIDIA Newsroom Newsroom.
  2. ^ “Apple to Use Intel Microprocessors Beginning in 2006”. Apple. June 6, 2005.
  3. ^ “Microsoft to Launch Xbox 360 November 22”pcworld.com. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
  4. ^ “IBM, Georgia Tech Deep Freeze for Gigahertz | News | TechNewsWorld”www.technewsworld.com.
  5. ^ Kanellos, Michael. “Chip breaks speed record in deep freeze”CNET.
  6. ^ Krazit, Tom. “Intel pledges 80 cores in five years”CNET.
  7. ^ “Asus Eee PC Series Announced – Laptoping”.
  8. ^ “Announcing the Android 1.0 SDK, release 1”.
  9. ^ “Five Years of Bitcoin in One Post”washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 9 May 2017.

External links

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
History

1920s

See also: Timeline of the History of Computing, This Year in History and History

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
History

1930 AD

See also: 1930s, Timeline of the History of Computing, This Year in History and History

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
History

1931 AD

See also: 1930s, Timeline of the History of Computing, This Year in History and History

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
History

1932 AD

See also: 1930s, Timeline of the History of Computing, This Year in History and History

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
History

1933 AD

See also: 1930s, Timeline of the History of Computing, This Year in History and History

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
History

1934 AD

See also: 1930s, Timeline of the History of Computing, This Year in History and History

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
History

1935 AD

See also: 1930s, Timeline of the History of Computing, This Year in History and History

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources:

Categories
History

1936 AD

See also: 1930s, Timeline of the History of Computing, This Year in History and History

” (WP)

Sources:

Fair Use Sources: