See: Mythical Man-Month, Anniversary Edition, The: Essays On Software Engineering 2nd Edition
“A limited hangout or partial hangout is, according to former special assistant to the Deputy Director of the Central Intelligence Agency Victor Marchetti, “spy jargon for a favorite and frequently used gimmick of the clandestine professionals. When their veil of secrecy is shredded and they can no longer rely on a phony cover story to misinform the public, they resort to admitting—sometimes even volunteering—some of the truth while still managing to withhold the key and damaging facts in the case. The public, however, is usually so intrigued by the new information that it never thinks to pursue the matter further.” (WP)
Modified limited hangout
“In a March 22, 1973, meeting between president Richard Nixon, John Dean, John Ehrlichman, John Mitchell, and H. R. Haldeman, Ehrlichman incorporated the term into a new and related one, “modified limited hangout“.
PRESIDENT: You think, you think we want to, want to go this route now? And the — let it hang out, so to speak?
DEAN: Well, it’s, it isn’t really that —
HALDEMAN: It’s a limited hang out.
DEAN: It’s a limited hang out.
EHRLICHMAN: It’s a modified limited hang out.
PRESIDENT: Well, it’s only the questions of the thing hanging out publicly or privately.
“Before this exchange, the discussion captures Nixon outlining to Dean the content of a report that Dean would create, laying out a misleading view of the role of the White House staff in events surrounding the Watergate burglary. In Ehrlichman’s words: “And the report says, ‘Nobody was involved,'”. The document would then be shared with the United States Senate Watergate Committee investigating the affair. The report would serve the administration’s goals by protecting the President, providing documentary support for his false statements should information come to light that contradicted his stated position. Further, the group discusses having information on the report leaked by those on the Committee sympathetic to the President, to put exculpatory information into the public sphere.” (WP)
“The phrase has been cited as a summation of the strategy of mixing partial admissions with misinformation and resistance to further investigation, and is used in political commentary to accuse people or groups of following a Nixon-like strategy.” (WP) However, this “strategy” has been used since time immemorial.
- ^ Victor Marchetti (August 14, 1978) The Spotlight
- ^ “720 F2d 631 Hunt v. Liberty Lobby Dc”. OpenJurist. 1983-11-28. Retrieved 2016-07-13.
- ^ Frost/Nixon: The Complete Interviews. David Frost, Richard Nixon. Paradine Television, 1977.
- ^ Safire, William (26 March 1989). “On Language; In Nine Little Words”. New York Times. Retrieved 23 June 2013.
- ^ a b “Transcript of a recording of a meeting among the president, John Dean, John Erlichman, H. R. Haldeman, and John Mitchell on March 22, 1973 from 1:57 to 3:43 p.m.” History and Politics Out Loud. Retrieved 2006-08-27.
- ^ Carrol, Jon (2002-05-01). “The Richard Nixon playbook”. San Francisco Chronicle. Retrieved 2006-08-27.
- ^ McGrory, Mary (2002-04-25). “From Rome, A ‘Limited Hangout'”. The Washington Post. Washington, D.C. p. A29. Retrieved 2010-04-30.
- Public relations techniques
- Psychological warfare techniques
- Watergate scandal
- Propaganda techniques
Return to Timeline of the History of Computers
Fair Credit Reporting Act
Alan Westin (1929–2013)
“In March 1970, a (“limited hangout“) professor from Columbia University testified before the US Congress about shadowy American businesses that were maintaining secret databases on American citizens. These files, said Alan Westin, “may include ‘facts, statistics, inaccuracies and rumors’ . . . about virtually every phase of a person’s life: his marital troubles, jobs, school history, childhood, sex life, and political activities.”
The files were used by American banks, department stores, and other firms to determine who should be given credit to buy a house, a car, or even a furniture set. The databanks, Westin explained, were also used by companies evaluating job applicants and underwriting insurance. And they couldn’t be outlawed: without credit and the ability to pay for major purchases with installments, many people couldn’t otherwise afford such things.
Westin was well known to the US Congress: he had testified on multiple occasions before congressional committees investigating the credit-reporting industry, and he had published a book, Privacy and Freedom (1967), in which he argued that freedom in the information age required that individuals have control over how their data are used by governments and businesses. Westin defined privacy as “the claim of individuals, groups, or institutions to determine for themselves when, how, and to what extent information about them is communicated to others.” And he coined the phrase data shadow to describe the trail of information that people leave behind in the modern world.
On October 26, 1970, Congress enacted the Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA), which gave Americans, for the first time, the right to see the consumer files that businesses used to decide who should get credit and insurance. The FCRA also gave consumers the right to force the credit bureaus to investigate a claim that the consumer felt was inaccurate, and the ability to insert a statement in the file, telling his or her side of the story.
The FCRA was one of the first laws in the world regulating what private businesses could do with data that they collect—the beginning of what is now called data protection, an idea that eventually spread worldwide.
Today there are privacy commissioners in almost every developed country. The passage of the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) marked the most far-reaching privacy law on the planet.”
Columbia professor Alan Westin was concerned about American businesses keeping secret databases on American citizens.
Return to Timeline of the History of Computers
Werner Buchholz (b. 1922), Louis G. Dooley (dates unavailable)
“Designers of the early binary computers faced a fundamental question: how should the computers’ storage be organized? The computers stored information in bits, but computer users didn’t want to write programs that manipulated bits; they wanted to solve math problems, crack codes, and generally work with larger units of information. The memory of decimal computers such as ENIAC and the UNIVAC I was organized in groups of 10 alphanumeric digits, called words. The binary computers also organized their memory into words, but these groups of bits were called bytes.”
|Unit system||units derived from bit|
|Unit of||digital information, data size|
|Symbol||B or (when referring to exactly 8 bits) o|
“It appears that the word byte was coined simultaneously in 1956 by Werner Buchholz at IBM, working on the IBM STRETCH (the world’s first supercomputer), and by Louis G. Dooley and others at MIT Lincoln Lab working on the SAGE air-defense system. In both cases, they used the word byte to describe the inputs and outputs of machine instructions that could operate on less than a full word. The STRETCH had 60-bit words and used 8-bit bytes to represent characters for its input/output system; the SAGE had instructions that could operate on 4-bit bytes.”
“The byte is a unit of digital information that most commonly consists of eight bits. Historically, the byte was the number of bits used to encode a single character of text in a computer and for this reason it is the smallest addressable unit of memory in many computer architectures. To disambiguate arbitrarily sized bytes from the common 8-bit definition, network protocol documents such as The Internet Protocol (RFC 791)(1981) refer to an 8-bit byte as an octet.“
“Over the next 20 years, the definition of a byte was somewhat fluid. IBM used 8-bit bytes with its System/360 architecture, and 8-bit groups were the standard for AT&T’s long-distance digital telephone lines. DEC, on the other hand, successfully marketed a series of computers with 18-bit and 36-bit words, including the PDP-7 and the PDP-10, which both utilized 9-bit bytes.”
“This lack of consistency resulted in the early Internet standards avoiding the word byte entirely. Instead, the word octet is used to describe a group of 8 bits sent over a computer network, a usage that survives to this day in Internet standards.”
“Nevertheless, by the 1980s, the acceptance of 8-bit bytes was almost universal—largely a result of the microcomputer revolution, because micros used 8-bit bytes almost exclusively. In part, that’s because 8 bits is an even power of 2, which makes it somewhat easier to design computer hardware with 8-bit bytes than with 9-bit bytes.”
“Today the era of 9-bit bytes is all but forgotten. And what about collections of 4 bits? Today these are called a nibble (sometimes spelled nybble).”
Multiples of bytes:
“Today’s computers most frequently use bytes consisting of 8 bits, represented by 1s and 0s.”
- 7 February – AMD releases the Ryzen Threadripper 3990X, the first 64 core CPU for consumer market based on the Zen 2 microarchitecture.
- 26 March – After the largest one of the first and largest public volunteer distributed computing projects [email protected] announced its shutdown by 31 March 2020 and due to heightened interest as a result of to the COVID-19 pandemic, the distributed computing project [email protected] becomes the world’s first system to reach one exaFLOPS. The system simulates protein folding, is used for medical research on COVID-19 and achieved a speed of approximately 2.43 x86 exaFLOPS by 13 April 2020 – many times faster than the fastest supercomputer Summit.
- 20 April – Researchers demonstrate a diffusive memristor fabricated from protein nanowires of the bacterium Geobacter sulfurreducens which functions at substantially lower voltages than previously described ones and may allow the construction of artificial neurons which function at voltages of biological action potentials. The nanowires have a range of advantages over silicon nanowires and the memristors may be used to directly process biosensing signals, for neuromorphic computing and/or direct communication with biological neurons.
- 22 May – Australian computer scientists report achieving, thus far, the highest internet speed in the world from a single optical chip source over standard optical fiber, amounting to 44.2 Terabits per sec, or “downloading 1000 high definition movies in a split second”.
- 27 May – A study shows that social networks can function poorly as pathways for inconvenient truths, that the interplay between communication and action during disasters may depend on the structure of social networks, that communication networks suppress necessary “evacuations” in test-scenarios because of false reassurances when compared to groups of isolated individuals and that larger networks with a smaller proportion of informed subjects can suffer more damage due to human-caused misinformation.
- June – The Linux operating systems market share breaks the 3% desktop usage marker for the first time in June 2020, reaching 3.57% in July 2020.
- 6 July – [Novel protocol/standard] – The Versatile Video Coding standard (H.266) is finalised, designed to halve the bitrate of previous formats, reducing data volume and especially useful for on-demand 8K streaming services.
- 28 August – Elon Musk reveals a model of the prototype brain–computer interface chip, implanted in pigs, that his company Neuralink has been working on.
- 3 September – Scientists report finding “176 Open Access journals that, through lack of comprehensive and open archives, vanished from the Web between 2000-2019, spanning all major research disciplines and geographic regions of the world” and that in 2019 only about a third of the 14,068 DOAJ-indexed journals ensured the long-term preservation of their content themselves, with many papers not getting archived by Web archiving initiatives such as the Internet Archive.
- 18 September – Media reports of what may be the first publicly confirmed case of a civilian fatality as a nearly direct consequence of a cyberattack, after ransomware disrupted a hospital in Germany.
- 25 September – [Novel application of computing / software] – Chemists describe, for the first time, possible chemical pathways from nonliving prebiotic chemicals to complex biochemicals that could give rise to living organisms, based on a new computer program named ALLCHEMY.
- 19 February – [Meta/Policy/Philosophy] – Thomas Metzinger, a German philosopher of cognitive science and applied ethics, calls for a “global moratorium on synthetic phenomenology” which, “until 2050”, precautionarily bans “all research that directly aims at or knowingly risks the emergence of artificial consciousness on post-biotic carrier systems” – and could be gradually refined. The paper does not describe mechanisms of global enforcement of such proposed regulations which do not consider biotic or semi-biotic systems and aims to limit suffering risks.
- January 2 – Robert M. Graham, American computer scientist (b. 1929)
- January 3 – Joseph Karr O’Connor, American computer scientist (b. 1953)
- January 8 – Peter T. Kirstein, British computer scientist (b. 1933)
- February 11 – Yasumasa Kanada, Japanese computer scientist (b. 1949)
- February 16
- February 18 – Bert Sutherland, American computer scientist (b. 1936)
- March 2 – Vera Pless, American mathematician (b. 1931)
- March 15 – Olvi L. Mangasarian, Iraqi-American computer scientist and mathematician (b. 1934)
- April 7
- April 11 – John Horton Conway, British mathematician (b. 1937)
- April 25 – Thomas Huang, American computer scientist (b. 1936)
- May 9 – Timo Honkela, Finnish computer scientist (b. 1962)
- June 5 – Deborah Washington Brown, American computer scientist (b. 1952)
- July 10 – Michael M. Richter, German mathematician and computer scientist (b. 1938)
- July 26 – Bill English, American computer engineer and co-developer of the computer mouse (b. 1929)
- August 4 – Frances Allen, American computer scientist, first woman to win the Turing Award (b. 1932)
- August 11 – Russell Kirsch, American computer scientist and inventor of the first digital image scanner (b. 1929)
- August 25 – Rebeca Guber, Argentine mathematician and computer scientist (b.1926)
- October 2 – Victor Zalgaller, Russian-Israeli mathematician (b. 1920)
- November 7 – Chung Laung Liu, Taiwanese computer scientist (b. 1934)
- November 14 – Peter Pagé, German computer scientist (b. 1939)
- November 23 – Konrad Fiałkowski, Polish computer engineer (b. 1939)
- December 1
- December 14 – Claudio Baiocchi, Italian mathematician (b. 1940)
- December 22 – Edmund M. Clarke, American computer scientist (b. 1945)
- December 23 – Lars Arge, Danish computer scientist (b. 1967)
- January 2 – Brad Cox, American computer scientist and inventor of the Objective-C programming language (b. 1944)
- January 28 – Alice Recoque, French computer scientist (b. 1929)
- February 1 – Walter Savitch, American computer scientist and theoretical mathematician (b. 1943)
- February 6 – Ioan Dzițac, Romanian computer scientist and mathematician (b. 1953)
- March 6 – Lou Ottens, Dutch engineer and inventor of the cassette tape (b. 1926)
- April 1 – Isamu Akasaki, Japanese engineer and physicist, and inventor of the blue LED (b. 1929)
- April 16 – Charles Geschke, American computer scientist and co-founder of Adobe Inc. (b. 1939)
- April 23 – Dan Kaminsky, American computer security researcher (b. 1979)
- WP – Timeline of computing 2020–Present: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_2020%E2%80%93present
- May 4
- June 15
- September 7
- February 29
- September ?? (Date unknown)
- October 4
- October 26
- November 18
- June 11
- Apple releases the first Retina Display MacBook Pros
- September 20
- November 15
- November 22
- November 29
- Sony releases the PlayStation 4 in Europe.
- August 26
- August 29
- July 29
- October 15
- AlphaGo was the first Go AI computer program developed by Google to defeat a professional human opponent on a full-sized board without handicap.
- January 12
- January 13
- March 4
- January 9
- September 20
- Google claims to have achieved Quantum supremacy.
- ^ “Official: iPad Launching Here April 3, Pre-Orders March 12”. Gizmodo. Archived from the original on 28 February 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “iPad Available in US on April 3”. Apple.com. Archived from the original on 17 November 2017. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- ^ “iPhone 4 Release Date: New iPhone Release Set For Summer 2010”. HuffPost. 7 June 2010. Archived from the original on 20 December 2016. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- ^ “Apple Presents iPhone 4”. Apple.com. Archived from the original on 3 September 2011. Retrieved 17 November 2017.
- ^ Shimpi, Anand Lal (2011-05-04). “Intel Announces first 22nm 3D Tri-Gate Transistors, Shipping in 2H 2011”. AnandTech. Archived from the original on 2013-12-25. Retrieved 23 January 2014.
- ^ “Official Google Blog: A new kind of computer: Chromebook”. Official Google Blog. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ Shimpi, Anand Lal (2011-09-07). “Seagate Ships World’s First 4TB External HDD”. AnandTech. Archived from the original on 2014-02-03. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- ^ “BBC News – The Raspberry Pi computer goes on general sale”. BBC News. Archived from the original on 14 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “Raspberry Pi $35 miniature computer now on sale, $25 model going into production ‘immediately'”. The Verge. 29 February 2012. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ Shimpi, Anand Lal (2012-09-11). “Intel’s Next Unit of Computing: 4″x4″, Core i3, Systems Targeted at $399”. AnandTech. Archived from the original on 2014-01-22. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- ^ Parrish, Kevin (2012-10-04). “TDK Finally Crams 2TB on One 3.5-inch HDD Platter”. Tom’s Hardware. Retrieved 26 January 2014.
- ^ “Windows 8’s delivery date: October 26”. ZDNet. 18 July 2012. Archived from the original on 19 September 2012. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “Nintendo Wii U release date is November 18th in US starting at $299.99, November 30th in Europe”. Polygon. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “The iPhone 5s: fingerprint sensor and improved camera, starts at $199 and coming September 20th”. Archived from the original on 10 September 2013. Retrieved 27 February 2016.
- ^ “PlayStation 4 Release Date Confirmed for November 15th in North America, November 29th in Europe”. Archive.is. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “Xbox One to Launch on November 22, 2013 in 13 Markets – Xbox Live’s Major Nelson”. Xbox Live’s Major Nelson. Archived from the original on 29 September 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “PlayStation 4 Release Date Confirmed for November 15th in North America, November 29th in Europe”. Archive.is. Archived from the original on 20 August 2013. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “Seagate’s 8TB drive is biggest ever, stores more than 300 Blu-ray discs”. TechRadar. 26 August 2014. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “Seagate ships first 8TB hard drive”. Techreport.com. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “Seagate Ships World’s First 8TB Hard Drives”. Seagate.com. Archived from the original on 27 August 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “Chromium Blog: 64 bits of awesome: 64-bit Windows Support, now in Stable!”. Chromium Blog. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ IntelPR. “Intel Unleashes its First 8-Core Desktop Processor”. Intel Newsroom. Archived from the original on 6 October 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “Happy Haswell-E And X99 Chipset Day, Internet! How About A System Giveaway?”. Tom’s Hardware. Archived from the original on 30 March 2021. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- ^ “The world’s first 13TB SSD is here”. Archived from the original on 28 February 2016. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- ^ “The world’s first 13TB SSD is here”. Archived from the original on 16 December 2018. Retrieved 10 February 2016.
- ^ “MIT’s new 5-atom quantum computer could make today’s encryption obsolete”. Archived from the original on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 5 March 2016.
- WP – Timeline of computing 2010–2019: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_2010%E2%80%932019
|?||The Ericsson R380, the first phone running Symbian OS was released.|
|January 14||The US Government announces that restrictions on exporting cryptography are being relaxed (although not removed).|
This allows many US companies to stop the long running process of having to create US and international copies of their software.
|January 19||Transmeta releases the Crusoe microprocessor.|
The Crusoe was intended for laptops and consumed significantly less electricity than most microprocessors of the time, while providing comparable performance to the mid-range Pentium II microprocessors.
Transmeta and Crusoe, new competitors to Intel and their products, initially appeared exciting and promising.
|February 17||Microsoft releases Windows 2000.|
|March||Be Inc. released BeOS R5 for PowerPC and x86, which was the first release of BeOS for x86 to have a freely downloadable version which could be fully installed on a user’s hard drive.|
|March 4||Sony releases the PlayStation 2.|
|March 6||AMD released an Athlon clocked at 1 GHz.|
|March 8||Intel releases very limited supplies of the 1 GHz Pentium III chip.|
|June 20||British Telecom (BT) claim the rights to hyperlinks on the basis of a US patent granted in 1989. Similar patents in the rest of the world have now expired.|
|September 6||RSA Security released their RSA algorithm into the public domain, in advance of the US patent (#4,405,829) expiring on September 20 of the same year.|
Following the relaxation of the US government restrictions earlier in the year (January 14) this removed one of the last barriers to the worldwide distribution of much software based on cryptographic systems.
The IDEA algorithm is still under patent and also that government restrictions still apply in some places.
|September 14||Microsoft releases Windows ME.|
|November 20||Intel releases the Pentium 4. The processor is built using the NetBurst microarchitecture, a new design since the introduction of the P6 microarchitecture used in the Pentium Pro in late 1995|
|January 4||Linux kernel version 2.4.0 released.|
|February 1||Foundation of the newco Loquendo as a spin-off of the CSELT‘s voice technology group.|
|February||The Agile Manifesto, which crystallised and named a growing trend towards more “agile” processes in software development, was released. The perceived success of agile project management led to agile approaches such as Scrum later being used as a general project management approach in other fields, not just in software development or even in computing.|
|March 24||Apple released macOS (as Mac OS X). This was a new operating system derived from NeXTSTEP, using Darwin as its kernel, an Open Source operating system based on BSD. This replaced the “classic” Mac OS for its Mac computers.|
Mac OS X finally gave Mac users the stability benefits of a protected memory architecture along many other enhancements, such as pre-emptive multitasking.
The BSD base also makes porting Unix applications to Mac OS X easier and gives Mac users a full-featured command line interface alongside their GUI.
|September 14||Nintendo releases their sixth generation home console, the GameCube.|
|October 25||Microsoft released Windows XP, based on Windows 2000 and Windows NT kernel. Windows XP introduces a heavily redesigned GUI and brings the NT kernel to the consumer market.|
|November 15||Microsoft releases the Xbox in North America.|
|March 4||RIM (now BlackBerry Ltd) released the first BlackBerry smartphone.|
|May 30||United Linux officially formed.|
|September 7||Blender, a 3D graphics software package, becomes open-source software after a crowdfunding campaign successfully raises €100,000.|
|February||Nvidia releases GeForce FX, a family of DirectX 9.0-compatible 3D cards with extensive support for pixel and vertex shaders.|
With this new product Nvidia makes an emphasis on image quality, proclaiming a “dawn of cinematic computing”, illustrated with the popular Dawn demo utilising extremely realistic skin and wing shaders.
|March 6||SCO Group announces it would sue IBM for US$1 billion. The claim is that Linux contains code inserted by IBM that was the copyrighted property of SCO (see SCO v. IBM).|
|March 12||Intel releases the Pentium M for notebooks and the Centrino mobile platform. The Pentium M delivers similar or higher performance than the Pentium 4-M while consuming less power.|
|April 22||AMD releases the Opteron line of server processors. The Opteron is the successor of the Athlon MP, and introduces the 64-bit K8 microarchitecture.|
|September 23||AMD releases the Athlon 64. The Athlon 64 is built on the K8 microarchitecture and is the first 64-bit processor widely available to the consumer market.|
|December 17||Linux kernel version 2.6.0 is released.|
|?||Sony released Librié EBR-1000EP in Japan, the first e-book reader with an electronic paper display.|
|April 1||Google announces Gmail.|
|April 14||Nvidia releases GeForce 6800, claiming it is the biggest leap in graphics technology the company ever made. Independent reviews show more than 100% increase in productivity compared with the fastest card on the market.|
Continuing the tradition, the company demonstrated Nalu, a mermaid with extremely realistic hair. A few weeks later, rival ATI announces the X800 series with nearly the same level of performance and feature support.
The card is showcased by the Ruby demo, delivering a smooth real-time rendering of what was previously in the exclusive realm of prerendered cinematics.
|October 20||The first release of the Ubuntu Linux distribution.|
|October 20||Infineon Technologies pleads guilty to charges of DRAM price fixing, resulting in a $160 million fine. Hynix Semiconductor, Samsung and Elpida would later plead guilty to the same.|
|November 9||Firefox 1.0 released, which later became Microsoft Internet Explorer‘s biggest competitor since Netscape Navigator.|
|February 26||Jef Raskin, who in 1979 envisioned and established the Macintosh project at Apple Computer, dies at the age of 61.|
|April 29||Apple Computer releases Mac OS X Tiger (v10.4) for PowerPC-based Macs.|
|May 25||Nokia announces the Nokia 770 Internet Tablet, the first device running Maemo.|
|May 26||Intel releases the Pentium D, their first dual-core 64-bit desktop processor.|
|May 31||AMD releases the Athlon 64 X2, their first dual-core 64-bit desktop processor.|
|June 6||Apple announces they are going to use Intel processors in upcoming Macintosh computers.|
|July 22||Microsoft announces their next consumer operating system, Windows Vista (previously “Longhorn”), to be released in early 2007.|
|November 22||Microsoft releases the Xbox 360.|
|January 5||Intel releases the Core brand. These are mobile 32-bit single-core and dual-core processors that were built using a modified design of the Pentium M‘s microarchitecture.|
|January 10||Apple Computer introduces the MacBook Pro, their first Intel-based, dual-core mobile computer, as well as an Intel-based iMac.|
|June 19||Researchers create experimental processor that delivers 350 GHz, when cryogenically frozen.|
|July 27||Intel releases the Core 2 processor.|
|September 26||Intel announces plans for an 80-core processor that would exceed 1 TFLOP, planned to be available in 2011.|
|November 11||Sony releases the PlayStation 3.|
|November 19||Nintendo releases the Wii.|
|December 24||AmigaOS 4 was released by Hyperion Entertainment (VOF) under license from Amiga, Inc. for AmigaOne registered users.|
|January 7||The first iPhone was introduced by Apple.|
|January 30||Microsoft Corporation launches Windows Vista more than 5 years after their last major, new operating system, Windows XP, was released.|
|June 5||Asus announces the first Asus Eee PC, launching the netbook category of mobile computers. It initially ran Linux; later models also offered a choice of Windows.|
|October 26||Apple launches Mac OS X Leopard (v10.5)|
|November 19||AMD releases the Phenom line of high performance processors, positioning the Athlon as a mid-range line.|
|September 2||The first public beta version of the Google Chrome web browser was released. Chrome subsequently became the most popular web browser in the world, overtaking Internet Explorer.|
|September 23||The first version of Android was introduced by Google.|
|October 22||The HTC Dream (T-Mobile G1), the first commercially available device to run the Android operating system, was released.|
|January 3||The online currency Bitcoin is released.|
|August 28||Apple launches Mac OS X Snow Leopard (v10.6)|
|October 22||Microsoft releases Windows 7.|
- ^ Newsroom, NVIDIA. “Home”. NVIDIA Newsroom Newsroom.
- ^ “Apple to Use Intel Microprocessors Beginning in 2006”. Apple. June 6, 2005.
- ^ “Microsoft to Launch Xbox 360 November 22”. pcworld.com. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- ^ “IBM, Georgia Tech Deep Freeze for Gigahertz | News | TechNewsWorld”. www.technewsworld.com.
- ^ Kanellos, Michael. “Chip breaks speed record in deep freeze”. CNET.
- ^ Krazit, Tom. “Intel pledges 80 cores in five years”. CNET.
- ^ “Asus Eee PC Series Announced – Laptoping”.
- ^ “Announcing the Android 1.0 SDK, release 1”.
- ^ “Five Years of Bitcoin in One Post”. washingtonpost.com. Retrieved 9 May 2017.
- A Brief History of Computing, by Stephen White. An excellent computer history site; the present article is a modified version of his timeline, used with permission.
- WP – Timeline of computing 2000–2009: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timeline_of_computing_2000%E2%80%932009